Study Two on the Effectiveness of Mindfulness Training for Smokers (MTS2)
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|ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01299909|
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : February 18, 2011
Results First Posted : February 1, 2017
Last Update Posted : November 29, 2017
|Condition or disease||Intervention/treatment||Phase|
|Nicotine Dependence||Behavioral: Integrated Training for Smokers Behavioral: Mindfulness Training for Smokers Behavioral: Quitline||Not Applicable|
The MTS2 Study is funded for through a five-year K23 NIH training grant (appendix) awarded to Dr. James Davis, the Principal Investigator on this protocol. The study enrollment goal is N=240 adult smokers randomized to study treatments. Based on prior recruitment numbers, it is expected that roughly 50% (120) will choose to be in an intensive intervention and 50% (120) will choose to be in the non-intensive intervention. Participants who choose to be in an intensive intervention will be randomized to either MTS (n = 60) or ITS (n=60). MTS is a smoking cessation intervention that provides 8 mindfulness classes over a 6-week period. ITS will provide participants will access to the Freedom From Smoking Online Premium Program (at no cost) plus 8 smoking cessation classes over a 6-week period. Participants who choose to be in a non-intensive intervention (n=120) will receive a phone-based intervention through the Wisconsin Tobacco Quit Line. At the Orientation Meeting, participants who decide to enter the study will be allowed to choose whether they enter an intensive or the non-intensive intervention. Intensive intervention participants will attend an additional meeting called the Introductory Meeting where they are will undergo randomization into either the MTS or ITS. The Introductory Meeting will also provide instruction on the use of nicotine patches, smoking calendars and provide intervention materials. The study employs 3 study assessment visits. Study Visit 1 follows the Orientation Meeting, Study Visit 2 is 4-weeks post-quit, Study Visit 3 is 24-weeks post-quit. All participants will receive 2 weeks of free nicotine patches and $30 for attending each of the two post-quit study visits.
The total time for the study including recruitment, intervention and participant follow-up for N = 240 will be three years. The study will recruit subjects from the Dane county region through the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health Center for Tobacco Research and Intervention (UW-CRTI). Recruitment will take place through flyers, television, newspaper and radio advertisements.
The principal hypothesis for the study is that MTS compared to ITS will show significantly higher point prevalent Carbon Monoxide confirmed smoking abstinence rates at 4 and 24 weeks post quit. Secondary hypotheses is that study group compared to controls will show significant differences in questionnaire results that test distress, depression, anxiety, attentional control, mindfulness and quality of life and bio-physiological markers such as weight, breath holding and hair cortisol.
|Study Type :||Interventional (Clinical Trial)|
|Actual Enrollment :||175 participants|
|Intervention Model:||Parallel Assignment|
|Masking:||None (Open Label)|
|Official Title:||Study Two for Development of Novel Behavioral Intervention Mindfulness Training for Smokers|
|Study Start Date :||March 2011|
|Actual Primary Completion Date :||December 2013|
|Actual Study Completion Date :||December 2013|
Active Comparator: Mindfulness Training for Smokers
MTS participants will receive 8 classes of training in mindfulness meditation, access to the MTS website, and 2 weeks of nicotine patches.
Behavioral: Mindfulness Training for Smokers
8 classes of training in mindfulness meditation, 2 weeks of nicotine patches, and access to the MTS website.
Active Comparator: Integrated Training for Smokers
ITS participants will receive 8 classes of training in smoking cessation strategies, access to the Freedom From Smoking online program, and 2 weeks of nicotine patches.
Behavioral: Integrated Training for Smokers
8 classes in smoking cessation strategies, 2 weeks of nicotine patches, and access to the Freedom From Smoking online program
Quitline participants will consist of participants who elect not to participate in the high-intensity treatments (Mindfulness Training for Smokers; Integrated Training for Smokers. This Quitline group is a Non-Randomized, Treatment as Usual group.
Telephone-based smoking cessation treatment via the Wisconsin Tobacco Quit Line (WTQL) consisting of 2 weeks of nicotine patches, self-help materials, an interactive website, and unlimited follow-up calls to the WTQL at no cost.
Other Name: Non-Randomized, Treatment as Usual
- Smoking Abstinence [ Time Frame: 24 weeks post quit day ]Self-reported 7-day point-prevalence smoking abstinence (i.e., no smoking in the past 7 days) biochemically confirmed by carbon monoxide breath testing in MTS vs ITS subjects at 24 weeks post quit day.
- Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) [ Time Frame: 24 weeks post-quit ]
The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) is a 39-item self-report questionnaire that assesses various components of mindfulness. Each item is rated on a 1 to 5 scale with 1=never or very rarely true and 5=very often or always true; responses are summed and then divided by 39 (the number of items). Higher scores on the FFMQ reflects a higher level of mindfulness (a better outcome).
More information on the FFMQ is available in the following two articles:
Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., Hopkins, J., Krietemeyer, J., & Toney, L. (2006). Using self-report assessment methods to explore facets of mindfulness. Assessment, 13(1), 27-45, http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1073191105283504.
Baer,R. A., Smith,G. T., Lykins, E., Button,D., Krietemeyer, J., Sauer, S., et al. (2008). Construct validity of the five facet mindfulness questionnaire in meditating and nonmeditating samples. Assessment, 15(3), 329-342, http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1073191107313003.
- Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ) [ Time Frame: 24 weeks post-quit ]
The Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ) is a 9-item self-report measure of experiential avoidance. Each item is rated on a 1 to 7 scale with 1=Never true and 7=Always true; responses are summed and then divided by 9 (the number of items). The minimum score is 1 and the maximum score is 7. Higher scores equal greater levels of experiential avoidance or psychological inflexibility (a worse outcome).
More information on the AAQ can be found in the following two articles:
Hayes, S. C., Strosahl, K., Wilson, K. G., Bissett, R. T., Pistorello, J., Toarmino, D., et al. (2004). Measuring experiential avoidance: A preliminary test of a working model. The Psychological Record, 54(4), 553-578.
Boelen, P. A., & Reijntjes, A. (2008). Measuring experiential avoidance: Reliability and validity of the Dutch 9-item Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ). Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 30, 241-251.
- Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) [ Time Frame: 24 weeks post-quit ]
The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) is a self-report measure of perceived stress; the version used is a 10-item version. Each item is rated on a 0 to 4 scale with 0=Never and 4=Very Often. The minimum score is 0 and the maximum score is 40. Higher scores on the PSS reflect higher levels of perceived stress (a worse outcome).
More information on the PSS can be found in the following article:
Leung, D. Y., Lam, T. H., & Chan, S. S. (2010). Three versions of Perceived Stress Scale: Validation in a sample of Chinese cardiac patients who smoke. BMC Public Health, 10, 513-519
To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT01299909
|United States, Wisconsin|
|University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health Center for Tobacco Research and Intervention|
|Madison, Wisconsin, United States, 53711|
|Principal Investigator:||James M Davis, MD||University of Wisconsin, Madison|