Try our beta test site
IMPORTANT: Listing of a study on this site does not reflect endorsement by the National Institutes of Health. Talk with a trusted healthcare professional before volunteering for a study. Read more...

Transcultural Mindfulness Assessment: A Mixed Methods Analysis

This study has been completed.
National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH)
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Michael Christopher, PhD, Pacific University Identifier:
First received: February 17, 2011
Last updated: October 28, 2014
Last verified: October 2014
Preliminary evidence attests to the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions in reducing symptoms associated with a variety of medical and psychological conditions. However, research progress has been hampered by discrepancies in how mindfulness has been operationalized, assessed, and practiced. Existing contemporary assessments of mindfulness were developed exclusively by Western scientists and have exhibited questionable validity, particularly among diverse cultural groups. Operational definitions of mindfulness are essential for the development of valid measures, which in turn are necessary for investigating the mechanisms of change in mindfulness-based interventions. Therefore, the overall goal of this study is to create a mindfulness measure that is informed by the experience of mindfulness experts - Theravāda, Tibetan, and Zen Buddhist clergy and lay practitioners. To do so, this study will employ the preliminary phases of the sequential exploratory mixed methods for instrument design model. The first phase will involve conducting open-ended interviews with Theravāda, Tibetan, and Zen Buddhist clergy and lay practitioners to ascertain expert information on mindfulness and closely related Buddhist concepts. This qualitative process allows the experts to define the phenomena of interest (i.e., addresses issues of validity). In the second phase, the investigators will use the themes and specific phrases evoked during the qualitative interviews to develop items for a draft closed-ended self-report measure of mindfulness. Following completion of the research outlined in this proposal, the investigators will submit a subsequent proposal to thoroughly evaluate the psychometric properties of our draft mindfulness questionnaire in a variety of different cultures and contexts. This measure can be beneficial in clinical research by helping to elucidate the mechanisms of change in mindfulness-based psychotherapies in the United States and equally so in other cultures such as Thailand, where mindfulness and other Buddhist practices have already been integrated into mainstream mental health treatment. Therefore, our aim is to create a measure that can help improve the assessment and clinical use of mindfulness.

Mental Health Wellness 1

Study Type: Observational
Study Design: Observational Model: Ecologic or Community
Time Perspective: Cross-Sectional
Official Title: Transcultural Mindfulness Assessment: A Mixed Methods Analysis

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by Pacific University:

Enrollment: 46
Study Start Date: August 2010
Study Completion Date: July 2014
Primary Completion Date: July 2011 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Buddhist Clergy and Laypersons


Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Senior)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Sampling Method:   Non-Probability Sample
Study Population
Buddhist clergy and laypersons

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Zen, Theravada, or Tibetan clergy
  • Zen, Theravada, or Tibetan layperson with meditation experience

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Under 18 years of age
  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT01299064

United States, Oregon
Pacific University
Forest Grove, Oregon, United States, 97116
Sponsors and Collaborators
Pacific University
National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH)
  More Information

Responsible Party: Michael Christopher, PhD, Associate Professor, Pacific University Identifier: NCT01299064     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 1R15AT005342-01A1 ( US NIH Grant/Contract Award Number )
Study First Received: February 17, 2011
Last Updated: October 28, 2014

Keywords provided by Pacific University:
mindfulness-based intervention
symptoms reduction
mental health processed this record on April 28, 2017