Postoperative Effects of Intranasal Fentanyl, IV and IM Morphine in Children Undergoing Myringotomy
|Otitis Media||Drug: Intranasal fentanyl Drug: morphine IM Drug: IV morphine||Phase 4|
|Study Design:||Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Quadruple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
|Official Title:||Postoperative Analgesic and Behavioral Effects of Intranasal Fentanyl, Intravenous Morphine and Intramuscular Morphine in Pediatric Patients Undergoing Bilateral Myringotomy and Placement of Ventilating Tubes|
- Maximum Postoperative Face, Legs, Activity, Cry and Consolability (FLACC) Pain Score. [ Time Frame: Upon arrival in the PACU, and at 5, 10, 15, 30, 45, 60 minutes and at discharge ]FLACC assigns 0-2 points for each of 5 categories (face, legs, activity, cry, consolability)and sums these points to give a total score where high scores indicate worse pain (Paediatr Anaesth 2006; 16: 258-65)
- Maximum PAED Score [ Time Frame: Upon arrival in the PACU, and at 5, 10, 15, 30, 45, 60 minutes and at discharge ]
Maximum score on the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence delirium scale. This has 5 items ranging from 1-4 and higher scores indicate greater emergence delirium.
1. eye contact with care giver ,score 1-4, purposeful actions 1-4, aware of surrounding 1-4,restless 1-4, inconsolable 1-4, Maximum score 20.
|Study Start Date:||May 2008|
|Study Completion Date:||May 2011|
|Primary Completion Date:||May 2011 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Active Comparator: IM morphine
0.1 mg/kg morphine IM
Drug: morphine IM
0.1 mg/kg morphine IM for postop pain
Active Comparator: IV morphine
0.1 mg/kg morphine IV
Drug: IV morphine
0.1 mg/kg morphine IV
Active Comparator: fentanyl IN
Intranasal fentanyl 2 mcg/kg IN
Drug: Intranasal fentanyl
2mcg/kg fentanyl IN
Preoperative anxiety will be assessed by the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale (mYPAS) at two points - (1) prior to separating the patient from the caretaker and bringing the patient to the operating room and (2) on application of the facemask. In keeping with our current standard practice, the child will be brought to the OR without premedication, and anesthesia will be induced and maintained by having the child breath sevoflurane titrated up to 8 %, nitrous oxide 70 % and oxygen 30 % via a facemask. In keeping with the guidelines of the American Society of Anesthesiologists recommendations, standard monitoring of EKG, pulse oxymetry, blood pressure and skin temperature will be performed. After a satisfactory level of anesthesia has been achieved, intravenous access will be established. All patients will receive intranasal, IM and IV medications as assigned by a computer generated random number scheme.Group A -Intranasal Fentanyl 2 mcg/kg (0.04 ml/kg), Normal saline placebo IM and IV: Group B Intranasal normal saline (0.01 ml/kg) placebo, Morphine 0.1 mg/kg (0.01 ml/kg)IM and IV normal saline placebo (0.01 ml/kg); Group C- Intranasal Placebo - normal saline 0.04 ml/kg, IM normal saline Placebo 0.01 ml/kg and Morphine 0.1 mg/kg (0.01 ml/kg) IV.
The surgeon will be asked to describe the condition of the middle ear (worst side) on a scale of 1-4 as described by Davis et al. (1 = no fluid; 2 = serous fluid; 3 = pus; and 4 = thick tenacious mucus-glue ear). The surgeon will also report any laceration of the ear canal.
Induction time, surgery start and end time and arrival in PACU time will be recorded. In the postoperative care unit the pain score will be measured by the FLACC's pain scale (Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability), adverse emergence behavior will be measured by PAED scale described by Sikich et. al. (Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium Scale). Patients with pain scores greater than 4 will receive morphine 0.05 mg/kg IV, to be repeated once if the pain score remains greater than 4 after 10 minutes. Acetaminophen 10-15 mg/kg will be administered enterally for pain scores between 1-3.
The incidence of oxygen desaturation (pulse oximetry values less than 95% for greater than 30 secs), emesis and need for pain rescue medication will be recorded. The times of arrival in PACU, eye opening, response to command, ambulation, discharge readiness, and actual discharge home will be recorded as well. Parental satisfaction with postoperative pain control and the overall experience will be measured on a 10-point (0= completely dissatisfied -10= completely satisfied) verbal rating scale. A postoperative survey will be conducted over the phone the following day. Time and dose of postoperative medications, quality and duration of sleep, appetite and incidence of nausea and vomiting, time patient returned to presurgical level of playing and normal behavior and parent satisfaction will be recorded.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01244126
|United States, Texas|
|Texas Children's Hospital|
|Houston, Texas, United States, 77030|
|Principal Investigator:||Helena Karlberg, MD||Baylor College of Medicine|