A Novel Approach to Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) Screening of Colonized Patients
|MRSA Colonization||Device: nucleic acid amplification of nasal swab; nasal swab culture Other: Nasal swab culture|
|Study Design:||Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Diagnostic
|Official Title:||A Novel Approach to MRSA Screening of Colonized Patients and Impact on Hospital Resource Allocation and Patient Care|
- Number of Subjects With Single Negative Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Result and 3 Negative Culture Assays [ Time Frame: 1 year ]This outcome is the negative predictive value of a single PCR assay for subjects with a history of prior MRSA infection or colonization.
- Completion of Screening Protocol in Both Trial Arms [ Time Frame: 1 year ]Rate at which subjects in both trial arms complete the 3-swab protocol.
- Discontinuation of Contact Precautions in Both Trial Arms [ Time Frame: 1 year ]Patients known to have MRSA require Contact Precautions based on current recommendations from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Contact Precautions mean that hospitalized patients with a history of MRSA infection or colonization are isolated in a private room or together with patients who have the same Contact Precautions status (i.e. both with MRSA). Healthcare workers caring for such patients must wear protective gowns and gloves during interactions and use of equipment dedicated to that patient is recommended. For this study, "Contact Precautions are discontinued" refers to the practice of discontinuation of Contact Precautions once subjects meet criteria based on institutional infection control policy: history of MRSA but no positive culture in preceding 90 days and three negative nasal surveillance cultures obtained at least 24 hours apart in the absence of concurrent antibiotic use.
- Number of Subjects With a Single Positive PCR Result and at Least 1 Positive Culture Assay [ Time Frame: 1 year ]This outcome is the positive predictive value of a single PCR assay for subjects with a history of prior MRSA infection or colonization who completed the 3 swab protocol.
- Sensitivity of First PCR Assay [ Time Frame: 1 year ]Sensitivity of the first PCR assay for subjects enrolled in active arm of trial.
- Specificity of First PCR Assay. [ Time Frame: 1 year ]Specificity of the first PCR assay for subjects enrolled in active arm of trial.
- Rate of Recolonization or Documented Infection With MRSA [ Time Frame: 2 years ]Prospective review of microbiological data for patients enrolled in the trial to determine rate of recolonization or documented infection.
|Study Start Date:||December 2010|
|Study Completion Date:||March 2016|
|Primary Completion Date:||September 2011 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Patients randomized to active screening will have two nasal swabs collected daily for 3 days, for both nucleic acid amplification and culture (CHROMagar)assays.
Device: nucleic acid amplification of nasal swab; nasal swab culture
Nasal swab is performed and analyzed using nucleic acid amplification to determine the presence or absence of MRSA DNA. One nasal swab is performed each day for three consecutive days during hospitalization.
Patients randomized to passive screening will not actively be identified for testing but may be tested using culture-based algorithm by care team.
Other: Nasal swab culture
Nasal swabs are obtained if the clinician caring for the patient identifies the patient as eligible to be screened for colonization. An algorithm for screening eligible patients is available electronically as part of the patient's standard medical record to the clinicians providing care.
Other Name: BD CHROMagar
Compared with patients with methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) bacteremia, patients with MRSA bacteremia remained in the hospital for two more days on average and had a median attributable increment in hospital charges of approximately $7000.
MRSA status is a determinant of bed allocation, especially in shared-room settings, which represent the most common organization in the US and globally. Based on guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, once patients are designated as having had a positive MRSA culture (either colonized or from a clinical isolate), they require Contact Precautions. This requirement translates into either cohorting with other patients with similar precautions status (i.e., two patients with MRSA share a room) or placement in a private room in the hospital. Cohorting is not the preferred infection control method, but in shared-room settings, it is the most common scenario, particularly in hospitals with high occupancy.
Individuals can clear MRSA colonization spontaneously. In fact, up to 38% of patients with MRSA-positive cultures taken greater than 3 months prior were found to be MRSA-negative during a re-screening program conducted by the Massachusetts General Hospital Infection Control Unit from 2004-2006. Other studies have demonstrated that a majority of patients are likely to clear colonization at various time points from original documentation of MRSA infection or colonization. There is currently no standardized approach or accepted guidelines for addressing screening for clearance of colonization in the growing pool of patients who have previous MRSA colonization/infection. Many organizations do provide guidelines for screening, but these guidelines are not based on rigorous study, have a variety of permutations, and have neither consensus acceptance nor adequate implementation among the medical community.
The status quo limits bed availability and delays patient discharge to rehabilitation facilities, adversely affecting quality and efficiency, and resulting in use of additional hospital resources. In addition to problems associated with patient flow for admissions and discharges, precaution status results in additional disruptions of patient care through "bed moves" to accommodate the use of shared rooms by like patients needing Contact Precautions.
A patient's precaution status affects his/her care from admission through discharge. During pre-admission, patients identified as previously having MRSA are affected by bed shortages and delays to admission while in emergency departments. While admitted, under current practices, patients who have in fact cleared MRSA may be cohorted with those who have active infection or persistent colonization, putting them at risk of recolonization and hospital acquired infection (HAI). Finally, patients who are on precautions for MRSA often have delayed discharge to rehabilitation or nursing facilities because of bed constraints similar to those experienced by acute care facilities.
We hypothesize that the use of more sensitive Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) methods detecting MRSA in nasal swabs can facilitate identification of true negative patients and can reliably do so with a single negative test in a shorter period of time, thereby greatly facilitating the ability to complete testing on a larger proportion of patients.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01234831
|United States, Massachusetts|
|Massachusetts General Hospital|
|Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 02114|
|Principal Investigator:||David C Hooper, MD||Massachusetts General Hospital|
|Principal Investigator:||Erica S Shenoy, MD, PhD||Massachusetts General Hospital|