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Oral Vancomycin Followed by Fecal Transplant Versus Tapering Oral Vancomycin

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT01226992
Recruitment Status : Terminated (Unavailable study resources)
First Posted : October 22, 2010
Last Update Posted : December 8, 2014
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
University Health Network, Toronto

Brief Summary:
Recurrent CDI is a growing problem with few treatment options that provide lasting effect. Fecal transplantation has been shown in several case series to be successful in controlling recurrent CDI. The current study is a non-blinded, randomized controlled trial comparing fecal transplantation with a 6 week taper of oral vancomycin for the treatment of refractory CDI. Approximately 146 patients will be enrolled over one year. Participants in the study will be followed for 120 days, and will be given the opportunity to cross over to the alternative intervention arm if a relapse in symptoms occurs. The primary outcome measure will be recurrence of toxin-confirmed CDI within 120 days of starting the intervention. Secondary outcomes include: early recurrence of symptoms within 14 days, relapse within 120 days (same strain of C. difficile), attributable mortality, hospitalization and serious adverse events.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Recurrent Clostridium Difficile Infection Laboratory Confirmed Clostridium Difficile Infection Drug: Vancomycin Biological: Fecal Transplant Phase 2 Phase 3

Detailed Description:

The proposed trial is a single-centre, phase II/III, open, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial. To have an evaluable population of 114 participants and assuming a 20% loss to follow-up, approximately 146 patients will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive either approximately 2 weeks of oral vancomycin followed by a single fecal transplant via enema (hereon referred to as the "fecal transplant arm") or a 6-week taper of oral vancomycin (hereon referred to as the "vancomycin taper arm"). The 2 weeks of vancomycin pre-treatment in the fecal transplant arm will allow for a fecal transplant donor to be screened for potentially transmissible infectious diseases (clinically and through blood and stool tests), in order to ensure appropriateness and safety of donation.

If patients fail treatment during the follow-up period of 120 days, they will be offered the opportunity to cross over to the alternate treatment arm. Those who cross over will be followed for an additional 120 days from the second intervention.

Participants will be assessed clinically for recurrence in CDI symptoms and adverse events at the following time points after the intervention: 4 days, 7 days, 3 weeks, 6 weeks, 12 weeks and 16 weeks. All recurrences of CDI symptoms will be investigated with C. difficile laboratory testing to confirm the etiology of these symptoms.

Analysis will be intention to treat. An interim analysis may take place after completion of follow-up of 30 patients. This interim analysis is meant to establish the safety and feasibility of the study, not measure efficacy. Although there were no formal sample size calculations to assess safety of the procedure, with a sample size of 70 participants, an adverse event rate, for example of 2.5%, can be detected with a probability of 0.83 for the fecal transplantation group.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 81 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Crossover Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Phase II/III Randomized Controlled Trial of Oral Vancomycin Followed by Fecal Transplantation Versus Tapering Oral Vancomycin for Recurrent Clostridium Difficile Infection (CDI)
Study Start Date : October 2010
Actual Primary Completion Date : October 2014
Actual Study Completion Date : October 2014

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MedlinePlus related topics: Bowel Movement

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Fecal Transplant
2 weeks of oral vancomycin pre-treatment followed by single dose fecal transplant administered by rectal enema. Fecal transplant (slurry) consists of 50 grams healthy donor stool blended in 500ml of Normal Saline.
Biological: Fecal Transplant
Fecal slurry 50 grams stool in 500ml normal saline

Active Comparator: Oral Vancomycin Taper
2 weeks of oral vancomycin pre-treatment followed by 6-week taper of oral vancomycin
Drug: Vancomycin

Oral Vancomycin:

Dose: 125 mg po qid x 2 weeks then 125 mg po bid x 1 week then 125 mg po od x 1 week then 125 mg po q every other day x 1 week then 125 mg po q every third day x 1 week then discontinue Route: oral

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Oral Vancomycin Followed by Fecal Transplantation versus Tapering Oral Vancomycin Treatment for Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection. [ Time Frame: 3 years ]
    To assess the number of patients with recurrence of laboratory-confirmed CDI in the 120 days following completion of intervention with either oral vancomycin followed by fecal transplantation or a 6-week taper of oral vancomycin.

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Oral Vancomycin Followed by Fecal Transplantation versus Tapering Oral Vancomycin Treatment for Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection. [ Time Frame: 3 years ]

    To evaluate the safety profile of fecal transplantation.

    To characterize other outcomes of patients treated with fecal transplantation and oral vancomycin, as determined by the following:

    i. Early (within 14 days of treatment completion) and late (within 120 days of treatment) recurrence of symptoms compatible with CDI; ii. Days with diarrhea in the 120 days post-treatment; iii. CDI requiring hospital admission in the 120 days after treatment onset; iv. All-cause and CDI-attributable mortality; v. Recurrence of CDI in the 120 days after crossover to the alternate treatment arm.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Laboratory or pathology-confirmed diagnosis of recurrent C. difficile infection (CDI) with symptoms within the previous 60 days. Recurrent CDI is defined as:

    • >/=2 episodes of CDI. Eligible patients must have had at least one treatment course with oral vancomycin (minimum 10 days of 500 mg total daily oral vancomycin).

Symptoms of CDI include:

  • Diarrhea (see below) OR
  • Abdominal pain AND abdominal distension/bloating AND fever, systemic illness with no other reason for these symptoms

Diarrhea will be self-reported and is defined as:

  • at least 6 watery feces in 36 hours OR
  • 3 unformed feces in 24 hours for minimum 2 days OR
  • 8 unformed feces over 48 hours

    • Age 18 years or older
    • Signed informed consent
    • Able to travel to clinic for follow-up visit and/or adhere to study procedures
    • Agrees to abstain from taking probiotic supplementations for medicinal reasons for the duration of the study and follow-up period. To clarify, dietary intake is acceptable (e.g. non-supplemented yogurt).

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Planned participation in another clinical trial
  • Patients with conditions such as neutropenia, graft versus host disease or severe immunocompromise, in whom enemas are contraindicated
  • More than one episode of CDI that has been severe or rapid in onset, resulting in:

    • intensive care unit admission
    • Evidence of active, severe colitis (ie. ongoing diarrhea not responsive to oral vancomycin; hemorrhagic colitis) such that an enema is contraindicated (note that such patients may be eligible once their colitis is under control)
    • Unable to tolerate fecal transplantation procedure for any other reason
    • Hypersensitivity or intolerance to oral vancomycin
    • Patients with underlying chronic gastrointestinal diseases that cause diarrhea, such as:
    • Inflammatory bowel disease
    • Short gut syndrome
    • Severe motility disorders
    • Severe diverticular disease
    • Other chronic diarrhea NYD
    • Unable to record frequency of bowel movements
    • Receiving an investigational medication
    • Planned therapy in the next 120 days that may cause diarrhea (example: chemotherapy)
    • Planned surgery requiring perioperative antibiotics within 120 days
    • Pregnancy
    • Requires the regular use of medications that affect bowel motility before onset of CDI (example: metoclopramide, narcotics, loperamide)
    • Serious bleeding disorder, anticoagulant use that cannot be stopped temporarily for procedure (in consultation with prescribing physician) or serious platelet disorder (platelet counts below 50).
    • Any condition that, in the opinion of the investigator, would pose a health risk to the subject.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT01226992

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Canada, Ontario
University Health Network
Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5N 1Y7
Sponsors and Collaborators
University Health Network, Toronto
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Principal Investigator: Susy Hota, MD FRCPC Infectious Disease, Infection Prevention and Control, Epidemiologist
Study Director: Susan Poutanen, MD MPH FRCPC Infectious Disease, Microbiologist
Publications automatically indexed to this study by Identifier (NCT Number):
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Responsible Party: University Health Network, Toronto Identifier: NCT01226992    
Other Study ID Numbers: UHN # 08-0440
9424-U0288/2-25C 124081 ( Other Identifier: Health Canada )
First Posted: October 22, 2010    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: December 8, 2014
Last Verified: October 2014
Keywords provided by University Health Network, Toronto:
Clostridium difficile
Fecal Transplant
Recurrent Diarrhea
Abdominal distension/bloating
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Communicable Diseases
Clostridium Infections
Disease Attributes
Pathologic Processes
Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections
Bacterial Infections
Bacterial Infections and Mycoses
Anti-Bacterial Agents
Anti-Infective Agents