Safety, Efficacy, and Pharmacokinetics of SKY0402 Administered as a Nerve Block in Subjects Undergoing Bunionectomy

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT01206595
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : September 22, 2010
Results First Posted : May 15, 2012
Last Update Posted : May 15, 2012
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Pacira Pharmaceuticals, Inc

Brief Summary:
The primary objective of this study was to determine the appropriate dose of SKY0402 administered as a nerve block for the management of postoperative pain following bunionectomy.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Postoperative Pain Drug: SKY0402 Drug: Bupivacaine HCl Phase 2

Detailed Description:

This Phase 2, multicenter, randomized, double blind, dose escalating/de-escalating study evaluated the safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of a single dose of SKY0402 compared to a single 125 mg dose of bupivacaine HCl for the treatment of postoperative pain in subjects undergoing bunionectomy.

Up to 88 subjects were to be randomized in five consecutive cohorts. The dose of bupivacaine HCl (125 mg) was to remain constant for all cohorts. After completion of Cohort 1, the decision to increase or decrease the dose of SKY0402 was made by a Cohort Data Review Committee following a review of pharmacokinetic, safety, and selected efficacy data from the previous cohort.

Study drug was to be administered as an ankle block, with or without a tourniquet, between 1 hour before the induction of general anesthesia and 20 minutes before the end of general anesthesia. The ankle block procedure consisted of five injections via three skin entries targeting the following nerves: posterior tibial, sural, deep peroneal, superficial peroneal, and saphenous.

The use of intravenous fentanyl during general anesthesia was permitted, but was not to exceed 250 micrograms. The intraoperative use of morphine was prohibited. Postoperatively, subjects had access to both opioid and non-opioid supplemental pain medication under general guidelines. Blood samples for the determination of plasma bupivacaine concentrations were obtained at Baseline and at specified time points through 96 hours.

Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 58 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Double (Participant, Investigator)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Phase 2, Multicenter, Randomized, Double Blind, Dose Escalating/ De-Escalating Study to Evaluate the Safety, Efficacy, and Pharmacokinetics of Sustained Release Encapsulated Bupivacaine (SKY0402) Administered as a Nerve Block in the Management of Postoperative Pain in Subjects Undergoing Bunionectomy
Study Start Date : March 2005
Actual Primary Completion Date : March 2006
Actual Study Completion Date : December 2006

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

Arm Intervention/treatment
Active Comparator: SKY0402
Low-dose, low-mid dose, and mid-dose
Drug: SKY0402
Single dose of SKY0402 administered as a nerve block

Active Comparator: Bupivacaine HCl
Marcaine with epinephrine 1:200,000 is the reference-listed drug for bupivacaine and contains the same active, local anesthetic as SKY0402
Drug: Bupivacaine HCl
Single dose of 125 mg administered as a nerve block

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Time to First Use of Supplemental Pain Medication Postoperatively for Surgical Pain [ Time Frame: Through 96 hours postdose ]
    The primary efficacy endpoint was the time to first use of supplemental pain medication (opioid or non-opioid) postoperatively for surgical pain.

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Number of Patients With Adverse Events [ Time Frame: Through 30 days postdose ]
    All adverse events were to be recorded from the time of dosing through Day 8. Serious adverse events (SAEs) were to be recorded through Day 30.

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

Subjects were eligible for enrollment if they met the following criteria:

  1. Males and females ≥18 years of age at the Screening Visit. NOTE: Eligible females were postmenopausal or surgically sterile, or, if of child bearing potential, were not pregnant or nursing, and they agreed to not become pregnant during the study by using acceptable means of contraception for at least 1 month before and 1 month after dosing, including any of the following: hormonal contraceptives (oral, injectable, implantable), effective barrier methods (e.g., condoms with spermicide), intrauterine device (IUD), lifestyle with a personal choice of abstinence, non-heterosexual lifestyle, or in a strictly monogamous relationship with a partner who has had a vasectomy.
  2. Scheduled to undergo a primary unilateral first metatarsal bunionectomy repair under general anesthesia, with or without internal fixation.

    NOTE: For the purpose of this protocol, all surgical procedures involving osteotomy of the first metatarsal (significant bone resection, excision, surgical fracture, etc.) or fusion of the first metatarsal phalangeal joint were considered qualified procedures, whether or not performed specifically to repair a bunion (hallus valgus deformity). Surgical techniques accompanied by minimal bone excision (e.g. cheilectomy) or procedures limited to soft tissue repair were not eligible for this study.

  3. American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) Physical Class 1 or 2.
  4. Able and willing to comply with all study visits and procedures.
  5. Capable of speaking and understanding the local language sufficiently to provide responses to pain assessment scales.
  6. Willing and capable of providing written informed consent.

Exclusion Criteria:

Subjects were excluded from the study if they met any of the following criteria:

  1. Clinically significant electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities at Screening or on Day 1 (before dosing).
  2. Albumin and/or alpha 1 acid glycoprotein (AAG) below normal levels.
  3. Current or historical evidence of any clinically significant disease or condition that, in the opinion of the Investigator, might have increased the risk of surgery or complicated the subject's postoperative course.
  4. Opioid medication usage during the 7 day period preceding the administration of study drug.
  5. Current medical conditions that could have required treatment with analgesic medications in the postoperative period for pain that was not surgically related (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis).
  6. Body mass index >30 mg/kg2.
  7. Body weight less than 60 kilograms.
  8. History of hypersensitivity or idiosyncratic reaction to amide type local anesthetic agents.
  9. History of hypersensitivity, idiosyncratic reactions, and other contraindications to the pain control agents (opioid or non-opioid) anticipated to be used postoperatively. These contraindications may have included the following: angioedema and bronchospastic reactivity to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), peptic ulcer (active within the last 3 months), or hepatic or renal insufficiency.
  10. Coagulation disorders or ongoing anticoagulation treatment.
  11. Administration of an investigational drug within 30 days or 5 half lives (of elimination), whichever was longer, prior to study drug administration.
  12. Suspected or known history of substance abuse and/or alcoholism.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT01206595

Sponsors and Collaborators
Pacira Pharmaceuticals, Inc
Study Director: Kay Warnott, RN, ACNP Parica Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Responsible Party: Pacira Pharmaceuticals, Inc Identifier: NCT01206595     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: SKY0402-C-203
First Posted: September 22, 2010    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: May 15, 2012
Last Update Posted: May 15, 2012
Last Verified: November 2011

Keywords provided by Pacira Pharmaceuticals, Inc:
Postoperative Pain

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Pain, Postoperative
Neurologic Manifestations
Nervous System Diseases
Postoperative Complications
Pathologic Processes
Signs and Symptoms
Anesthetics, Local
Central Nervous System Depressants
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Sensory System Agents
Peripheral Nervous System Agents