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Esmolol Infusion During Laminectomy: Effect on Quality of Recovery

This study has been terminated.
(The preliminary result didn't show any benefit.)
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Roya Yumul, M.D.,PhD., Cedars-Sinai Medical Center Identifier:
First received: August 10, 2010
Last updated: September 27, 2016
Last verified: September 2016
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of esmolol, a drug which is commonly administered during surgery to help control blood pressure and heart rate, on postoperative pain levels and requirements for pain medication.

Condition Intervention Phase
Drug: Esmolol
Drug: Saline
Phase 4

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Caregiver)
Official Title: Esmolol Infusion for Maintaining Hemodynamic Stability During Single or Double Level Lumbar Laminectomy: Effect on Quality of Recovery.

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by Cedars-Sinai Medical Center:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Post-operative Pain Using Verbal Rating Scale (VRS) [ Time Frame: 1 day ]

    Verbal Rating Scale goes from 0 to 10, where:

    0 indicates= No pain" and 10 indicates= The worst possible pain

    The information was be recorded by study staff and data obtained from patient and patient charts from post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) stay

Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Opioid Consumption in PACU Obtained From the Recorded Data [ Time Frame: 1 day ]
    Postoperative use of opioid (Hydromorphone) consumption inside hospital at PACU (recorded by study staff and data obtained from patient charts).

  • Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting [ Time Frame: 1 day ]
    Number of participants that experienced Postoperative nausea and vomiting using at PACU

Enrollment: 33
Study Start Date: June 2011
Study Completion Date: May 2015
Primary Completion Date: May 2015 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Placebo Comparator: Placebo
Placebo: Will receive a normal saline bolus during induction, and an infusion of normal saline intraoperatively
Drug: Saline
Loading: an equivalent volume for the Esmolol group Infusion: an equivalent volume for the Esmolol group
Other Name: Placebo
Active Comparator: Esmolol
Will receive Esmolol Loading: 0.5 mg/kg bolus during induction Infusion: 15 mcg /kg/min, infusion intraoperatively
Drug: Esmolol
Esmolol group: Will receive 0.5 mg/kg IV bolus of esmolol during induction, and an infusion of esmolol at 0.3 mg/kg/hr intraoperatively.
Other Name: Brevibloc

Detailed Description:

A common practice used to control autonomic responses during surgery is to administer beta-blockers intraoperatively. This practice has been shown to effectively blunt autonomic responses to intraoperative events. Several studies have shown that administration of beta-blockers can decrease intraoperative anesthetic requirements. Additionally, it has been demonstrated in several studies that intraoperative beta-blocker administration may actually decrease postoperative pain scores and opioid requirements, although these results are not entirely consistent. The mechanism by which the decrease in postoperative pain and narcotic requirements occurs is unclear. It has been postulated that esmolol may itself possess some analgesic-like properties, as was suggested by studies performed in rodent models. It has also been postulated that perioperative beta-blockade may attenuate the neuroendocrine stress response to surgery, thereby decreasing inflammatory responses in tissues; however, this theory was not supported by a study in which stress hormone levels were measured in patients who received beta-blockers and compared to a control group. Several studies which investigated the effects of beta-blockade on postoperative pain and opioid requirements compared the beta-blocker treatment group to an opioid treatment group, and did not include a true control group in which no treatment was given. Therefore, it is unclear whether the decrease in postoperative pain and opioid requirements in these studies was due to a true effect of the beta-blockers or whether it was due to an effect of the opioids.

Therefore, the investigators propose a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study in which the investigators will compare an esmolol infusion treatment group to a normal saline infusion control group with regards to the effects on postoperative pain and opioid requirements. By setting up the study in this manner, the investigators will be able to clearly evaluate the effects of beta-blockers on postoperative pain scores and opioid requirements. The investigators chose to use esmolol both because it has a short half-life, so it is easy to titrate and administer as an infusion, and also because it is selective for beta-1 receptors, so deleterious effects of intraoperative hypotension should be minimized. The investigators chose to perform the study on patients who are undergoing single-level or double-level laminectomies because prior studies have investigated the effects of intraoperative beta-blockers on patients who are not chronic pain patients, and the investigators would like to research whether the results which have been suggested by prior studies are also applicable to patients who may have chronic pain, as this is the patients population that is most likely to experience high pain levels following surgery, and may benefit the most from reduction of postoperative pain levels.


Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 80 Years   (Adult, Senior)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Patients scheduled to undergo single-level or double-level laminectomy under general anesthesia
  • Willingness and ability to sign an informed consent document
  • No allergies to any of the anesthetic or analgesic medications being used for the study, as outlined in the study protocol
  • Between 18-80 years of age
  • American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class I-III adults of either sex

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Patients who are ASA class IV or higher
  • Patients with known allergy, hypersensitivity, or contraindication to the use of any of the medications being used for the study, as outlined in the study protocol
  • Patients who are heavy chronic opioid users, defined for the purposes of this study as any patient who is taking the equivalent of 10mg of oral morphine per day or greater
  • Pregnant or lactating women
  • Patients with a history of drug or alcohol abuse within the past 3 months
  • Patients with any other medical conditions or who are using any medications which may interfere with the conduct of the study (including patients taking clonidine, patients with EKG conduction defects and who are taking calcium channel blockers, patients with clinically significant congestive heart failure (CHF) or bronchospasm, or patients with second- or third-degree heart block, symptomatic sinus bradyarrhythmia, or nonsinus rhythm on preoperative EKG.)
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Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT01179113

United States, California
Cedars Sinai Medical Center
Los Angeles, California, United States, 90048
Sponsors and Collaborators
Cedars-Sinai Medical Center
Principal Investigator: Roya Yumul, MD, PhD Cedars-Sinai Medical Center
Principal Investigator: Roya Yumul, MD., PhD Cedars-Sinai Medical Center
  More Information

Responsible Party: Roya Yumul, M.D.,PhD., Residency program director, Department of anesthesiology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center Identifier: NCT01179113     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: Pro00019850
Study First Received: August 10, 2010
Results First Received: June 9, 2016
Last Updated: September 27, 2016

Keywords provided by Cedars-Sinai Medical Center:
Esmolol Infusion
Quality of recovery
Pain management
Postoperative pain
Opioid requirements
Intraoperative esmolol infusion
Return to normal activities of daily living

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Adrenergic beta-1 Receptor Antagonists
Adrenergic beta-Antagonists
Adrenergic Antagonists
Adrenergic Agents
Neurotransmitter Agents
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Physiological Effects of Drugs processed this record on March 28, 2017