Preoperative Testing of the Anti-Progesterone Mifepristone in Early Stage Breast Cancer
|Invasive Breast Cancer Ductal Carcinoma in Situ||Drug: Mifepristone||Early Phase 1|
|Study Design:||Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
|Official Title:||A Biomarker Study of Mifepristone in Early Stage Breast Cancer|
- Change in proliferation by Ki-67 immunohistochemistry. [ Time Frame: 5-30 days ]
- Tumor size [ Time Frame: 5-30 days ]
- Expression of related targets following mifepristone exposure [ Time Frame: 5-28 days ]RNA-seq will be used to evaluate expression of steroid receptor isoform expression following drug exposure. These data will be compared with response as measured by proliferation change and tumor size.
|Study Start Date:||June 2010|
|Primary Completion Date:||June 2014 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
200mg capsules daily for 5-28 days
Secondary objectives of this study include; (1) Measuring objective response in tumor size with treatment, (2) Establishing the safety and tolerability of short term mifepristone exposure in early stage breast cancer patients, and (3) Performing exploratory studies of expression of related targets following drug exposure.
Anti-estrogen therapy has been a mainstay of breast cancer treatment for over three decades. It is highly effective and has modest toxicity, certainly in comparison to chemotherapy. The selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen has the longest history but a number of aromatase inhibitors and the anti-estrogen fulvestrant are also in widespread use along with ovarian ablation for pre-menopausal women. Given the success of this approach, and the highly analogous parallel progesterone signal, it is unfortunate that anti-progesterone therapy has not been similarly pursued. Additionally, data from the Woman's Health Initiative trial reveal a potentially significant role for progesterone in breast cancer development and growth. Healthy postmenopausal women treated with the combination of estrogen and progesterone over a 5 year period were 24% more likely to develop invasive breast cancer and had larger tumors at diagnosis. Notably this effect was not seen in post-hysterectomy women treated with estrogen alone over nearly 7 years. In fact a non-statistically significant reduction in breast cancer incidence was observed with estrogen alone.
The anti-progesterone mifepristone has been found to reduce proliferation in normal breast tissue. Even a low dose of mifepristone (50mg every other day for 3 months) demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in breast cell proliferation (measured by Ki-67 immunohistochemistry).
Higher doses of mifepristone, 200mg daily, have been used in patients with metastatic breast cancer for durations of almost 2 years without serious toxicity. Response rates were only 11% but no grade 4 or 5 toxicities occurred. Some grade 3 toxicities occurred, including lethargy, nausea, vomiting, and skin rash. These rashes resolved with temporary discontinuation of drug and did not recur when drug was resumed.
As a whole these data strongly support research into anti-progesterone therapy for early stage breast cancer. To our knowledge this is the first such study.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01138553
|United States, California|
|Moores UCSD Cancer Center|
|La Jolla, California, United States, 92093|
|Principal Investigator:||Richard B Schwab, MD||University of California, San Diego|