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Effect of Zonisamide on Cocaine Reinforcement, Craving, and Relapse

This study has been completed.
Sponsor:
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT01137890
First Posted: June 7, 2010
Last Update Posted: September 5, 2017
The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
Collaborator:
National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Johns Hopkins University
  Purpose
This is a residential pilot trial to evaluate the pharmacodynamic interaction between zonisamide and cocaine, with the goal of evaluating zonisamide's potential for the treatment of cocaine dependence.

Condition Intervention Phase
Cocaine Dependence Drug: Zonisamide Drug: Placebo Drug: Cocaine Hydrochloride Behavioral: Neurocognitive and Performance Battery Behavioral: Smoking Assessments Phase 1 Phase 2

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Quadruple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Other
Official Title: Effect of Zonisamide on Cocaine Reinforcement, Craving, and Relapse

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by Johns Hopkins University:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Change in Visual Analog Questionnaire (VAQ) Score [ Time Frame: Weeks 1-5; mean of weeks 1, 3 and 5 reported ]
    VAQ measures the change in effect after dose administration. Participants rate 6 items ("Any Drug Effect", "Rush", "Good Effects", "Bad Effects", "Liking", & "Desire for Cocaine") by pointing an arrow along a 100-point line anchored at either end with "none" (0) & "extremely" (100). Each participant's score is equal to the sum of all 6 ratings, & the mean of all participant's scores is reported across each condition. The VAQ is only administered to subjects in the zonisamide (Zon) condition (n=8). Repeated within-subject measures ANOVA performed to observe the main effects of Zon dose (0, 300, & 600mg) & cocaine dose (1, 20, & 40mg), & their interaction. All 8 subjects who received Zon completed both 300mg & 600mg doses. Assessments obtained on Week 1 (0mg Zon), Week 3 (300mg Zon), & Week 5 (600mg Zon), in which all 3 cocaine were co-administered at these times. Cocaine not administered (only Zon) during Weeks 2 & 4, thus no measures taken at these times

  • Behavioral Choice Measures [ Time Frame: Weeks 1-5, mean of weeks 1, 3 and 5 reported ]

    In each condition of cocaine-zonisamide dose, participants were asked to choose whether they would rather have a repeated cocaine dose (same dose as most recent administration) or cash of varying monetary value. The mean number of cocaine choices across each drug condition are reported. This measure only included participants in the zonisamide (Zon) condition (n=8), with each arm representing variation in co-administration of cocaine-Zon.

    Repeated within-subject measures ANOVA performed to observe the main effects of zonisamide dose (0, 300, and 600mg) and cocaine dose (1, 20, and 40mg), and their interaction. Only participants who received the active zonisamide medication (n=8) were included in this portion of the analysis.

    During self-administration sessions are every 15 min over 1hr45min period. Assessment on Weeks 1 (0mg Zon), 3 (300mg Zon), 5 (600mg Zon), in which varying cocaine doses co-administered. Cocaine not administered (only Zon) during Weeks 2 & 4


  • Cocaine Craving [ Time Frame: Day 1-39 ]
    Cocaine craving measured by Cocaine Selectivity Severity Assessment (CSSA). The CSSA is a reliable and valid tool to measure cocaine withdrawal severity within a 24 hr period, and has been shown to predict treatment response in a treatment setting. Participants are asked to rate 18-items on a Likert scale 0-7, with composite scores ranging 0-126 and higher numbers indicative of more severe withdrawal. Mean scores on CSSA across 39-day time period are reported.


Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Drug Value Questionnaire [ Time Frame: Weeks 1-5; mean of weeks 1, 3 and 5 reported ]

    Street Value of Sampled Dose. After co-administration of cocaine-zonisamide, participants were asked to hypothetically estimate the value of the drug they received, if they were to purchase it on the street. The mean value (dollars) across all drug conditions is reported here.

    Repeated within-subject measures ANOVA performed to observe the main effects of zonisamide dose (0, 300, and 600mg) and cocaine dose (0, 20, and 40mg), and their interaction. Only participants who received the active zonisamide medication (n=8) were included in this portion of the analysis. Additionally, all 8 subjects who received zonisamide completed both 300mg and 600mg doses.

    Within-subject repeated interval during self-administration sessions. Cocaine not administered (only Zon) during Weeks 2 & 4, thus no measures taken at these times



Enrollment: 19
Study Start Date: June 2010
Study Completion Date: August 2013
Primary Completion Date: March 2012 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: Zonisamide
Participants administered blind capsules containing either placebo or zonisamide.
Drug: Zonisamide
Eight capsules administered daily in split doses at 22:00 and 09:00.
Other Names:
  • Zonegran,
  • CAS 68291-97-4,
Drug: Cocaine Hydrochloride
Cocaine Challenge Sessions: Human laboratory sessions with administration of moderate doses of cocaine by the intravenous route under controlled conditions and cardiovascular monitoring.
Other Names:
  • CAS 50-36-2
  • methylbenzoylecgonine
  • benzoylmethylecgonine
  • C17H21NO4
Behavioral: Neurocognitive and Performance Battery
Participants will complete tests to assess their abilities and performances on a number of tasks given by a computer or other type of equipment.
Behavioral: Smoking Assessments
Participants answer questions about smoking and smoking behaviors are monitored.
Placebo Comparator: Placebo
Participants administered only placebo capsules containing lactose.
Drug: Placebo
capsules administered in split doses at 22:00 and 09:00.
Drug: Cocaine Hydrochloride
Cocaine Challenge Sessions: Human laboratory sessions with administration of moderate doses of cocaine by the intravenous route under controlled conditions and cardiovascular monitoring.
Other Names:
  • CAS 50-36-2
  • methylbenzoylecgonine
  • benzoylmethylecgonine
  • C17H21NO4
Behavioral: Neurocognitive and Performance Battery
Participants will complete tests to assess their abilities and performances on a number of tasks given by a computer or other type of equipment.
Behavioral: Smoking Assessments
Participants answer questions about smoking and smoking behaviors are monitored.

Detailed Description:
This is a residential pilot trial to evaluate the effect of zonisamide (ZNS) on cocaine reinforcement, craving and relapse. Cocaine addiction remains a major social and medical problem that imposes a significant burden on our society, as more than a half million cocaine dependent individuals are seeking treatment every year. Medications that act to antagonize the glutamate system and/or increase the GABA-system are new targets in the search towards effective cocaine treatment. ZNS is part of a new line of antiepileptic agents that act both as glutamate antagonists and to enhance the Gamma-AminoButyric acid (GABA) system. Topiramate, a similar agent, showed a positive signal in a pilot trial for cocaine dependence. ZNS has the advantages of a longer half-life requiring only once a day dosing and, being better tolerated, it requires a shorter induction phase and can be administered at higher doses. We hypothesize that ZNS in moderate to high doses will attenuate the central effect of cocaine and improve the neural perturbations resulting from cocaine use, thus decreasing cocaine craving. Healthy, adult cocaine dependent volunteers will be enrolled on our residential unit for 44 days for this double-blind within subject study. The pharmacodynamic interactions between ZNS and cocaine will be measured in cocaine self-administration procedure offering alternative reinforcers with monetary values. Cocaine reinforcing effect will be evaluated over a range of doses, and subjective and objective outcomes on mood and behavior will be collected. In addition, the effect of ZNS on ad-lib smoking will be studied on the days when no other procedure interferes with smoking behaviors. Neurocognitive and psychomotor effects of ZNS treatment will also be studied with an extensive test battery on the day of the week when no cocaine is administered. This study will explore the potential therapeutic effect of ZNS for the treatment of cocaine dependence while providing necessary safety assessments required for possible future outpatient clinical trials.
  Eligibility

Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.


Ages Eligible for Study:   21 Years to 45 Years   (Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Age at least 21 years old, not older than 45 years.
  • Evidence of cocaine dependence.
  • Not seeking treatment for cocaine abuse.
  • Able and willing to be restricted to our unit for 6-7 weeks.
  • Able to answer frequent questionnaires reliably and consistently.
  • Smoker.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Allergy to Sulfonamide drugs (e.g. topiramate, zonisamide, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim).
  • Diabetes, respiratory insufficiency, renal tubular acidosis or renal insufficiency, heart failure, liver insufficiency, chronic diarrhea, other chronic diseases predisposing to acidosis.
  • Renal insufficiency defined as serum creatine > 1.30 mg/DL for males or > 1.03 mg/DL for females.
  • History of nephrolithiasis, unexplained hematuria on screening urinalysis.
  • History of head injury (with loss of consciousness longer than a few minutes).
  • History of seizure, or use of antiepileptic medications.
  • HIV positive individuals who meet AIDS by Centers for Disease Control (CDC) criteria or are on antiretroviral medications.
  • BMI < 19 or BMI > 34.
  • Total cholesterol > 240mg%.
  • Serous psychiatric illness with psychosis, dementia.
  • Glaucoma, family history of glaucoma, one-sided blindness.
  • For female participants: being pregnant, lactating or not using an effective method of contraception.
  • Physical dependence on any drug other than cocaine, nicotine, or caffeine.
  Contacts and Locations
Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT01137890


Locations
United States, Maryland
Behavioral Pharmacology Research Unit
Baltimore, Maryland, United States, 21224
Sponsors and Collaborators
Johns Hopkins University
National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)
Investigators
Principal Investigator: Annie Umbricht, M.D. Johns Hopkins University
  More Information

Responsible Party: Johns Hopkins University
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01137890     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: R01DA027065 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
First Submitted: June 3, 2010
First Posted: June 7, 2010
Results First Submitted: April 17, 2017
Results First Posted: September 5, 2017
Last Update Posted: September 5, 2017
Last Verified: September 2017

Keywords provided by Johns Hopkins University:
cocaine
addiction
drug dependence
anticonvulsant
zonisamide
drug self-administration
nicotine withdrawal
neurocognition

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Cocaine-Related Disorders
Substance-Related Disorders
Chemically-Induced Disorders
Mental Disorders
Cocaine
Zonisamide
Anesthetics, Local
Anesthetics
Central Nervous System Depressants
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Sensory System Agents
Peripheral Nervous System Agents
Vasoconstrictor Agents
Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors
Neurotransmitter Uptake Inhibitors
Membrane Transport Modulators
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Dopamine Agents
Neurotransmitter Agents
Anticonvulsants
Antioxidants
Protective Agents