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Study to Compare Selective Internal Radiation Therapy (SIRT) Versus Sorafenib in Locally Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) (SIRveNIB)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01135056
Recruitment Status : Unknown
Verified April 2018 by Singapore General Hospital.
Recruitment status was:  Active, not recruiting
First Posted : June 2, 2010
Last Update Posted : April 24, 2018
National Cancer Centre, Singapore
National Medical Research Council (NMRC), Singapore
Singapore Clinical Research Institute
Sirtex Medical
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Singapore General Hospital

Brief Summary:

The primary objective of this study is to assess the efficacy of SIRT as compared with Sorafenib in patients with locally advanced liver cancer in terms of overall survival (OS).

The Study null hypothesis is, there is no difference in overall survival between patients receiving SIRT and those receiving Sorafenib therapy.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Hepatocellular Carcinoma Device: SIR-Spheres Drug: Sorafenib tosylate Phase 3

Detailed Description:

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the 5th most common cancer worldwide but unfortunately between 70 - 80% of all HCC are in the Asia-Pacific because of the prevalence of chronic viral hepatitis in the region. The increase in the prevalence of chronic hepatitis C in the Western world however predicts that HCC will similarly be an important cause of death there in the next 20 years.

Only 15-20% of HCC are today potentially curable by surgery at the time of diagnosis. Another 10-15% of patients may benefit from potentially curative locally ablative therapy such as radio-frequency ablation. Prognosis in the majority of patients has been dismal as conventional systemic therapies have been largely inefficacious. The first successfully trialed systemic targeted therapy, sorafenib (2007) prolonged survival by a modest average of 3 months in patients with good underlying liver function.

While the liver is radio-sensitive, external beam radiation causes significant radio-toxicity. To overcome this, selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) was developed to deliver a radiation source directly to liver cancer via the arterial route. Sir-sphere is radioactive yttrium on a 90 micro-meter diameter resin carrier and is an established therapy in colorectal metastasis. Sir-sphere has been reported to cause significantly tumour regression in HCC.

This study will evaluate the efficacy of SIRT using SIR-Spheres yttrium-90 microspheres compared to sorafenib in the treatment of patients with locally advanced primary HCC.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 360 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Phase III Multi-Centre Open-Label Randomized Controlled Trial of Selective Internal Radiation Therapy (SIRT) Versus Sorafenib in Locally Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma (SIRveNIB)
Study Start Date : July 2010
Estimated Primary Completion Date : July 31, 2018
Estimated Study Completion Date : July 31, 2018

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

Arm Intervention/treatment
Active Comparator: Sorafenib, Multikinase Inhibitor, Tablet

Sorafenib tosylate:

Sorafenib is a multikinase inhibitor that decreases tumor cell proliferation.

Sorafenib was shown to inhibit multiple intracellular (c-CRAF, BRAF and mutant BRAF) and cell surface kinases (KIT, FLT- 3, RET, VEGFR-1, VEGFR- 2, VEGFR- 3, and PDGFR- ß). Several of these kinases are thought to be involved in tumor cell signaling, angiogenesis and apoptosis. Sorafenib inhibited tumor growth of the human hepatocellular carcinoma and renal cell carcinoma, and several other human tumor xenografts in immunocompromised mice. A reduction in tumor angiogenesis and increases in tumor apoptosis was seen in models of human hepatocellular and renal cell carcinoma. Additionally a reduction in tumor cell signaling was seen in a model of human hepatocellular carcinoma.

Drug: Sorafenib tosylate
Oral Tablet, 400mg B.i.d, until progression or unacceptable toxicity develops
Other Name: Nexavar

Active Comparator: SIR-Spheres, Microspheres, Device


SIR-Spheres consist of biocompatible resin microspheres containing yttrium-90, with a size between 20 and 60 microns in diameter. Yttrium-90 is a high-energy pure beta-emitting isotope with no primary gamma emission. The half life of yttrium-90 is 64.1 hours. In clinical use which requires the isotope to decay to infinity, 94% of the radiation is delivered in 11 days leaving only background radiation with no therapeutic value.

SIR-Spheres is implanted into hepatic tumours by delivery via either the common hepatic artery or the right or left hepatic artery using a catheter or implanted port . Once SIR-Spheres is implanted into the liver, it is not metabolised or excreted and it stays permanently in the liver.

Device: SIR-Spheres
One time treatment. Dose administered based on tumour volume. Each vial is 3.0GBq.
Other Name: Yttrium-90 Microspheres

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Overall Survival [ Time Frame: 2 years ]
    Overall Survival is defined as the time from the date of randomisation to the date of death due to any cause. All patients will be followed up until death to compare the overall survival between the two treatments. 2 years is an estimated time frame.

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Progression free survival in the liver [ Time Frame: 2 years ]
    Progression-free survival in the liver is defined as the time interval between randomisation and the date of tumour progression in the liver or death, whichever is earlier. Tumour progression in the liver will be determined from serial CT scans. Diagnosis of tumour progression of disease should be made using the RECIST guideline version 1.1. 2 years is an estimated time frame.

  2. Progression free survival overall [ Time Frame: 2 years ]

    Progression-free survival overall is defined as the time interval between randomisation and the date of tumour progression at any site in the body or death, whichever is earlier. Tumour progression at any site in the body will be measured by any definitive imaging technique including CT scan, MRI study or other nuclear medicine scan. The Investigator should clearly indicate the site of tumour progression (hepatic or extra-hepatic) at the time of recurrence.

    2 years is an estimated time frame.

  3. Tumour Response Rate [ Time Frame: 2 years ]

    Tumour response and progression will be evaluated in this study using the new response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: Revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1) [European Journal of Cancer (45): 228 - 247, 2009] (http://ctep.cancer.gov/protocolDevelopment/docs/recist_guideline.pdf).

    2 years is an estimated time frame

  4. Toxicity and Safety [ Time Frame: Up to 2 years ]
    Toxicity will be assessed using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria (NCI-CTC) version 4.02. Patients for both treatment arms will be followed-up for safety and toxicity from the time of study entry (randomisation day) until 30 days post study conclusion or until commencement of the next alternative therapy, which ever is earlier.

  5. Health Related Quality of Life (QoL) [ Time Frame: Up to 2 years ]
    Quality of life (QoL) will be measured by using the EQ-5D questionnaire over the study period. QoL for patients will be measured until their first disease progression up to 2 years (estimated) which ever is earlier.

  6. Liver resection rate [ Time Frame: Up to 2 years ]
    Patients will be assessed for suitability for liver resection every 12 weekly until their study conclusion up to 2 years which ever is earlier.

  7. Liver Transplantation Rate [ Time Frame: Up to 2 years ]
    Patients will be assessed for suitability for liver transplantation every 12 weekly until their study conclusion up to 2 years which ever is earlier.

  8. Time to Disease Progression [ Time Frame: Up to 2 years ]
    Time to Disease Progression (TTP) is defined as a measure of time after a disease is diagnosed (or treated) until the disease starts to get worse. Disease Progression will be measured by RECIST guideline version 1.1. TTP will be measured every 12 weekly up to 2 years (estimated).

  9. Disease control rate [ Time Frame: 2 years ]

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Disease must be locally advanced as defined by BCLC (B) intermediate stage or BCLC (C) advanced stage without extra-hepatic disease (only with branch portal vein thrombosis).
  • Willing, able and mentally competent to provide written informed consent prior to any testing undertaken for this study protocol, including screening tests and evaluations that are not considered to be part of the subject's routine care.
  • Aged 18 years/older (either gender).
  • Unequivocal diagnosis of HCC.
  • HCC not amenable to surgical resection or immediate liver transplantation, or cannot be optimally treated with local ablative techniques such as RFA, consistent with the practice of the clinical trial centre.
  • Measurable disease, defined as at least one lesion that can be accurately measured in at least one dimension (longest diameter to be recorded) as ≥ 10 mm with spiral CT scan or MRI.
  • ECOG performance status 0-1.
  • Child-Pugh A-B (up to 7 points)
  • Adequate haematological, renal and hepatic function as follows:
  • Leukocytes ≥ 2,500/μL
  • Platelets ≥ 80,000/μL
  • Haemoglobin > 9.5g/dL
  • Total bilirubin < 2.0mg/dL
  • INR ≤ 2.0
  • ALP ≤ 5 x institutional ULN
  • AST and ALT ≤ 5 x institutional ULN
  • Albumin ≥ 2.5g/dL
  • Creatinine ≤ 2.0mg/dL
  • Life expectancy of at least 3 months without any active treatment.
  • Suitable for protocol treatment as determined by clinical assessment undertaken by the Investigator.
  • Female patients must be either postmenopausal or, if premenopausal, must have a negative pregnancy test and agree to use 2 forms of contraception if sexually active during their study participation.
  • Male patients must be surgically sterile, or if sexually active and having a pre-menopausal female partner then must be using an acceptable form of contraception.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Have had more than 2 administrations of hepatic artery directed therapy.
  • Subjects who have had hepatic artery directed therapy done < 4 weeks prior to study entry.
  • Have had systemic chemotherapy for HCC except for prior adjuvant or neoadjuvant therapy given more than 6 months from enrolment.
  • have had prior treatment with Sorafenib or VEGF inhibitors.
  • Prior hepatic radiation therapy for HCC or other malignancy.
  • Currently receiving any other investigational agents for the treatment of their cancer.
  • Has intractable clinical ascites (in spite of optimal diuretic treatment) or any other clinical signs of liver failure, on physical examination.
  • Complete main portal vein thrombosis.
  • Any metastatic disease (local-regional lymph nodes measuring less than 2 cm in greatest diameter or lung nodules measuring less than 1 cm are not contraindications as per Investigator discretion).
  • Any other concurrent malignancy, except for adequately treated basal cell or squamous cell skin cancer, in situ cervical cancer, or other cancer for which the patient has been disease-free for at least 5 years.
  • Presence of clinical signs of CNS metastases due to their poor prognosis and because progressive neurologic dysfunction would confound the evaluation of neurologic and other adverse events.
  • Uncontrolled inter-current illness including, but not limited to, ongoing or active infection (except viral hepatitis), symptomatic congestive heart failure, unstable angina pectoris, cardiac arrhythmia, or psychiatric illness/social situations that would limit compliance with study requirements.
  • Any of the following contraindications to angiography and selective visceral catheterization:
  • Bleeding diathesis, not correctable by the standard forms of therapy.
  • Severe peripheral vascular disease that would preclude arterial catheterization.
  • Portal hypertension with hepato-fugal flow as documented on baseline spiral CT scan.
  • History of allergic reactions attributed to compounds of similar chemical or biologic composition to SIR-Spheres or Sorafenib.
  • Inability or unwillingness to understand or sign a written informed consent document.
  • Female subjects who are pregnant or currently breastfeeding.
  • Female subjects, unless postmenopausal or surgically sterile, unwillingness to practice effective contraception, as per Investigator discretion during the study. The rhythm method is not to be used as the sole method of contraception.
  • Male subjects, unwillingness to practice effective contraception (per Investigator discretion) while taking part in this study, because the effect of the SIR-Spheres treatment on sperm or upon the development of an unborn child are unknown.
  • Current enrolment in any other investigational therapeutic drug or device study.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT01135056

Show Show 29 study locations
Sponsors and Collaborators
Singapore General Hospital
National Cancer Centre, Singapore
National Medical Research Council (NMRC), Singapore
Singapore Clinical Research Institute
Sirtex Medical
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Study Chair: Pierce KH Chow, MBBS, PhD National Cancer Centre, Singapore
Additional Information:
Publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
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Responsible Party: Singapore General Hospital
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01135056    
Other Study ID Numbers: AHCC06
First Posted: June 2, 2010    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: April 24, 2018
Last Verified: April 2018
Keywords provided by Singapore General Hospital:
Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Phase III
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Carcinoma, Hepatocellular
Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial
Neoplasms by Histologic Type
Liver Neoplasms
Digestive System Neoplasms
Neoplasms by Site
Digestive System Diseases
Liver Diseases
Antineoplastic Agents
Protein Kinase Inhibitors
Enzyme Inhibitors
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action