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Trial of Otelixizumab for Adolescents and Adults With Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (Autoimmune): DEFEND-2 (DEFEND-2)

This study has been completed.
Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
GlaxoSmithKline Identifier:
First received: May 11, 2010
Last updated: December 13, 2012
Last verified: December 2012

DEFEND-2 is a Phase 3 confirmatory study for the Phase 3 DEFEND-1 study. The study objective is to find out if an 8-day series of otelixizumab infusions leads to greater improvement in insulin secretion as compared with placebo. Insulin secretion will be assessed using mixed meal-stimulated C-peptide.

Subjects will be assigned to receive either otelixizumab or placebo at a ratio of 2:1 (2/3 otelixizumab, 1/3 placebo). These study agents will be administered as an addition to insulin, diet, and other standard of care treatments.

Condition Intervention Phase
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1
Biological: Otelixizumab
Biological: Placebo
Phase 3

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Investigator)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: DEFEND 2: Durable-Response Therapy Evaluation ForEarly- or New-Onset Type 1 Diabetes

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by GlaxoSmithKline:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Amount of C-peptide (a protein that shows how much insulin the body is producing) during a mixed meal stimulation test. [ Time Frame: at 12 months ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]

Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Average daily insulin use, HbA1c (a measurement of blood glucose control), and incidence of abnormal blood glucose levels. [ Time Frame: at Week 12, Months 6, 12, 18, and 24 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]

Enrollment: 179
Study Start Date: May 2010
Study Completion Date: March 2012
Primary Completion Date: March 2012 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: otelixizumab
Biological: Otelixizumab
Other Names:
  • ChAglyCD3
  • TRX4
  • monoclonal antibody
  • anti-CD3
Placebo Comparator: placebo
Biological: Placebo

Detailed Description:

The following visits are required:

  • Screening Visits: 2 to 3 appointments will be conducted to determine eligibility. At 2 of these visits participants will drink a liquid meal and have blood tests done over the post-meal period. Participants will also be required to wear a continuous glucose monitor for a short period of time.
  • Dosing Visits: 8 outpatient visits on consecutive days, each lasting about 2-4 hours.
  • Follow-up Visits: weekly for the first month, then every 2 weeks for 3 months, followed by monthly visits through 1 year. There will be 3 visits in the second year.
  • The total duration of the study is 2 years.
  • Glucose test strips and glucose monitors will be provided to participants for the duration of the study. Frequent glycemic monitoring will occur through lab testing and blood glucose self-monitoring to help facilitate tight glycemic control in all subjects. Subjects will be asked to intermittently record their insulin doses using a telephone or web based system and continuous glucose monitoring will be performed every 6 months.

Ages Eligible for Study:   12 Years to 17 Years   (Child)
Genders Eligible for Study:   Both
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Ages 12-17
  • Diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, consistent with ADA criteria
  • No more than 90 days between diagnosis and administration of study compounds
  • Requires insulin for type 1 diabetes mellitus, or has required insulin at some time between diagnosis and administration of study compounds. In Canada, has to be using insulin at the time of dosing.
  • Stimulated C-peptide level greater than 0.20 nmol/L and less than or equal to 3.50 nmol/L
  • Positive for one or more of the autoantibodies typically associated with T1DM: antibody to glutamic acid decarboxylase (anti‑GAD); antibody to protein tyrosine phosphatase-like protein (anti‑IA‑2); zinc transporter autoantibodies (ZNT8); insulin autoantibodies (IAA). A subject who is positive for insulin autoantibodies (IAA) and negative for the other autoantibodies will only be eligible if the subject has used insulin for less than 7 days total.

Exclusion Criteria:

•Other, significant medical conditions based on the study doctor's evaluation

  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT01123083

  Show 122 Study Locations
Sponsors and Collaborators
Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation
Study Director: GSK Clinical Trials GlaxoSmithKline
  More Information

Responsible Party: GlaxoSmithKline Identifier: NCT01123083     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 115494  TRX4018 
Study First Received: May 11, 2010
Last Updated: December 13, 2012
Health Authority: Netherlands: Central Committee on Research inv. Human Subjects
Spain: Spanish Medicines and Health product Agency
United Kingdom: Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency
Finland: Finnish Medicines Agency
Belgium: Belgian Federal Agency for Medicinal and Health Products
Italy: Ministry of Health
Canada: Health Canada
Denmark: Danish Medicines Agency
Germany: Paul-Ehrlich-Institut
Sweden: Medical Products Agency
United States: Food and Drug Administration

Keywords provided by GlaxoSmithKline:
new onset type 1 diabetes
juvenile diabetes
Type 1 diabetes

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1
Glucose Metabolism Disorders
Metabolic Diseases
Endocrine System Diseases
Autoimmune Diseases
Immune System Diseases processed this record on October 21, 2016