Natural History Study of Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance (MGUS) and Smoldering Myeloma (SMM)

This study has been completed.
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC) ( National Cancer Institute (NCI) ) Identifier:
First received: April 22, 2010
Last updated: May 11, 2016
Last verified: March 2016


- Multiple myeloma is a type of cancer that affects white blood cells and has a poor long-term survival rate. Two other types of cancer, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and smoldering myeloma (SMM), may eventually progress and develop into multiple myeloma. Researchers are interested in collecting samples from individuals who have been diagnosed with MGUS and SMM to study possible risk factors for developing multiple myeloma.


- To study risk factors that may cause MGUS and SMM to progress to multiple myeloma.


- Individuals at least 18 years of age who have been diagnosed with either MGUS or SMM but do not have multiple myeloma.


  • Participants will be examined by study researchers at the initial visit, at 6 months following enrollment, and every 12 months for a maximum of 5 years.
  • The following tests may be performed: (1) blood and urine tests, (2) bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, (3) imaging studies, and (4) a skeletal survey (a series of skeletal X-rays of the skull, spine, pelvis, ribs, shoulders, upper arm, and thigh bones).
  • Treatment will not be provided as part of this protocol. - Participants will remain on the study for 5 years, or until their MGUS or SMM progresses to multiple myeloma requiring treatment.

Smoldering Myeloma
Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance

Study Type: Observational
Study Design: Time Perspective: Prospective
Official Title: Natural History Study of Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance (MGUS) and Smoldering Myeloma (SMM)

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC):

Enrollment: 225
Study Start Date: April 2010
Detailed Description:


  • Multiple Myeloma (MM) is an incurable plasma cell neoplasm with a median survival of 3-4 years.
  • Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and smoldering myeloma (SMM) are premalignant plasma cell proliferative disorders characterized by elevated monoclonal protein and bone marrow plasma cells. MGUS affects 3.2% of Caucasians over the age of 50 and has a 1% annual risk of progression to MM. approximately 3000 cases of SMM are diagnosed annually with a 10% annual risk of progression to MM.
  • Current risk stratification schemes rely on serum protein markers and phenotyping by flow cytometry. While they can differentiate high and low risk patients, they cannot predict outcome for individual patients, are not integrated with one another, and have limited direct correlation to biology.
  • Paired samples linked to clinical information can advance research into improved risk stratification, the pathogenesis of MGUS, SMM, and MM, and the potential for an early treatment window for these incurable diseases.


  • To characterize the natural history and prognosis of MGUS and SMM
  • To integrate protein markers (including immunoglobulin free light-chains) and immunophenotyping by flow cytometry with molecular profiles (including gene expression profiles) and clinical outcomes
  • To apply expertise and diagnostic technology to provide improved evaluation, monitoring, and risk-stratification for patients on this protocol
  • To provide paired samples of blood and tissue linked to clinical and molecular information for pilot translational studies


  • A confirmed diagnosis of MGUS or SMM (based on IMWG diagnostic criteria)
  • Age greater than or equal to 18 years
  • ECOG performance status in the range of 0-2
  • Patients who have a diagnosis of MM are not eligible for this study.


  • This is a prospective cohort study of patients with either MGUS or SMM.
  • Following initial evaluation and confirmation of diagnosis, patients will be followed as clinically indicated, usually at 12 month intervals.
  • The primary endpoint is progression to MM requiring treatment.
  • Patients may donate cellular products or tissues as appropriate for research purposes.

    154 patients with MGUS and 154 patients with SMM will be enrolled on this protocol.


Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 100 Years   (Adult, Senior)
Genders Eligible for Study:   Both
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
  • Diagnosis of MGUS and SMM will be made in accordance with the clinical diagnostic criteria set forth by the International Myeloma Working Group (Table 1).
  • The diagnoses will be confirmed by either serum/urine protein electrophoresis, immunofixation and light-chain assays; or immunohistochemistry analyses of the bone marrow biopsy, or a combination of these tests.
  • Age greater than or equal to 18 years.
  • ECOG performance status of 0-2.
  • The patient must be competent to sign an informed consent form.


- A diagnosis of MM as defined as any patient with detectable M-protein in blood and/or urine, monoclonal plasma cells in the bone marrow, and evidence of end-organ damage (based on the International Myeloma Working Group s diagnostic CRAB criteria:

hypercalcemia [serum calcium at least 1 mg/dL above the upper limit of normal], renal failure [creatinine greater than 1.95 mg/dL), anemia (hemoglobin less than 10 g/dL], or bone lesions [lytic lesions or osteoporosis with compression fractures]).

- Patients who have received previous therapy for MM.

  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT01109407

United States, Maryland
National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, 9000 Rockville Pike
Bethesda, Maryland, United States, 20892
Sponsors and Collaborators
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Principal Investigator: Mark J Roschewski, M.D. National Cancer Institute (NCI)
  More Information

Additional Information:
Responsible Party: National Cancer Institute (NCI) Identifier: NCT01109407     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 100096  10-C-0096 
Study First Received: April 22, 2010
Last Updated: May 11, 2016
Health Authority: United States: Federal Government

Keywords provided by National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC):
Plasma Cell Neoplasm
Natural History
Translational Studies
Gene Expression Profiling
Protein Markers
Smoldering Myeloma
Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Multiple Myeloma
Neoplasms, Plasma Cell
Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance
Neoplasms by Histologic Type
Hemostatic Disorders
Vascular Diseases
Cardiovascular Diseases
Blood Protein Disorders
Hematologic Diseases
Hemorrhagic Disorders
Lymphoproliferative Disorders
Immunoproliferative Disorders
Immune System Diseases
Hypergammaglobulinemia processed this record on July 28, 2016