European Ambulance Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) Angiography Trial (EUROMAX)

This study has been completed.
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
The Medicines Company
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT01087723
First received: March 12, 2010
Last updated: January 13, 2016
Last verified: January 2016
  Purpose
To show that the early administration of bivalirudin improves 30 day outcomes when compared to the current standard of care in participants with ST segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (STE-ACS), intended for a primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) management strategy, presenting either via ambulance or to centers where PCI is not performed.

Condition Intervention Phase
Acute Coronary Syndrome
Drug: Bivalirudin
Drug: Heparin
Phase 3

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Multi-centre, Multi-national, Prospective, Randomised, Open-label, Comparison of Bivalirudin to Other Guideline Based Current Therapies (Excluding Bivalirudin)

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by The Medicines Company:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • The Composite Incidence of Death and Non-coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) Major Bleeding [ Time Frame: Within 30 days ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    A participant was defined to have had a composite event if the participant experienced at least 1 of the 2 components (death or non-CABG major bleeding) of the composite. Incidence=the number of participants to experience the event/total number of at risk participants x 100. Death was defined as death from any cause at any time. Non-CABG major bleeding was defined as any 1 of the following: intra-cranial, retroperitoneal, intraocular, access site hemorrhage requiring radiological or surgical intervention, reduction in hemoglobin (Hb) concentration of >4 grams/deciliter (g/dL) without an overt source of bleeding, reduction in hemoglobin concentration of >3 g/dL with an overt source of bleeding; re-intervention for bleeding, or use of any blood product transfusion.


Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • The Composite Incidence of Death, Re-infarction (MI), or Non-CABG Major Bleeding [ Time Frame: Within 30 days ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    A participant had a composite event if the participant experienced at least 1 of the 3 components (death, re-infarction [MI], or non-CABG major bleeding) of the composite. Incidence=the number of participants to experience the event/total number of at risk participants x 100. Death was defined as death from any cause at any time. Non-CABG major bleeding was defined as any one of the following: intracranial, retroperitoneal, intraocular, access site hemorrhage requiring radiological or surgical intervention, reduction in Hb concentration of >4 g/dL without an overt source of bleeding, reduction in hemoglobin concentration of >3 g/dL with an overt source of bleeding, re-intervention for bleeding, use of any blood product transfusion. MI was defined as a positive diagnosis of re-infarction (new event) not associated with index PCI.

  • The Incidence of Death, Re-infarction, Non-CABG-related Major Bleeding, or Ischemia-driven Revascularization (IDR) [ Time Frame: Within 30 days ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Incidence=number of participants to experience the event/total number of at risk participants x 100. Death from any cause at any time. Re-infarction was a positive diagnosis of re-infarction not associated with index PCI. Non-CABG major bleeding was any 1 of: intracranial, retroperitoneal, intraocular, access site hemorrhage requiring radiological or surgical intervention, reduction in Hb concentration of >4 g/dL without an overt source of bleeding, reduction in hemoglobin concentration of >3 g/dL with an overt source of bleeding, re-intervention for bleeding, use of any blood product transfusion. IDR was any refractory ischemia-driven repeat percutaneous intervention or bypass graft surgery involving any native coronary or pre-existing bypass graft vessel. In the absence of pain, new ST segment changes indicative of ischemia, acute pulmonary edema, ventricular arrhythmias, or hemodynamic instability presumed to be ischemic in origin, will constitute sufficient evidence of ischemia.

  • The Incidence of Death at 1 Year [ Time Frame: Within 1 Year ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Incidence=the number of participants to experience the event/total number of at risk participants x 100. Death was defined as death from any cause at any time.

  • The Incidence of Major Bleeding: Thrombolysis in MI (TIMI) and Global Utilization of Streptokinase and tPA for Occluded Coronary Arteries (GUSTO) [ Time Frame: Within 30 days ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Incidence=the number of participants to experience the event/total number of at risk participants x 100. Major bleeding based on TIMI criteria was defined as any intra-cranial bleeding, or any bleeding associated with clinically overt signs associated with a drop in Hb of >5 g/dL (or, when Hb was not available, an absolute drop in hematocrit [Hct] >15%). Major bleeding based on GUSTO criteria was defined as severe/life-threatening: intra-cranial hemorrhage or resulting in substantial hemodynamic compromise requiring treatment.

  • The Incidence of Minor Bleeding: TIMI and GUSTO [ Time Frame: Within 30 days ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Incidence=the number of participants to experience the event/total number of at risk participants x 100. Minor bleeding based on TIMI criteria was defined as any clinically overt sign of bleeding (including observation by imaging techniques) that was associated with a fall in Hb of ≥3 g/dL and ≤5 g/dL (or, when Hb was not available, an absolute drop in Hct of ≥9% and ≤15%). Minor bleeding based on GUSTO criteria was defined as other bleed not requiring blood transfusion or causing hemodynamic compromise.

  • The Incidence of Stent Thrombosis (Academic Research Consortium [ARC Definition]) [ Time Frame: Within 30 days ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Incidence=the number of participants to experience the event/total number of at risk participants x 100. Stent thrombosis, based on the ARC definition, was defined as angiographic confirmation of stent thrombosis, non-occlusive thrombus, occlusive thrombus, or pathological confirmation of stent thrombosis.

  • The Incidence of Thrombocytopenia [ Time Frame: Within 30 days ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Incidence=the number of participants to experience the event/total number of at risk participants x 100. Thrombocytopenia was defined as a post-procedural platelet count <100,000 cells/millimeter cubed (cells/mm^3) in a participant with a baseline or pre-procedural platelet count >100,000 cells/mm^3.

  • The Incidence of Stroke [ Time Frame: Within 30 days ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Incidence=the number of participants to experience the event/total number of at risk participants x 100. Stroke was defined as a sudden, focal neurological defect resulting from a cerebrovascular cause, resulting in death or lasting greater than 24 hours that was not due to a readily identifiable cause, such as a tumor, infection, or trauma.


Enrollment: 2198
Study Start Date: March 2010
Study Completion Date: August 2014
Primary Completion Date: August 2013 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: Bivalirudin
Given immediately upon enrollment as an intravenous (IV) bolus of 0.75 mg/kilogram (mg/kg), followed immediately by an infusion of 1.75 mg/kg/hour (mg/kg/h). This infusion was to be run continuously until completion of PCI, at which time the infusion was reduced to 0.25 mg/kg/h for at least 4 hours. An optional PCI-dose infusion of 1.75 mg/kg/h was also permitted for up to 4 hours at the discretion of the operator.
Drug: Bivalirudin
Other Names:
  • Angiox
  • Angiomax
Active Comparator: Standard of Care: Heparins with Optional GPI

Standard-of-care anti-thrombotic therapy as outlined in the European Society of Cardiology Dosing Guidelines for Management of STE-ACS, not including bivalirudin: UFH (100 international units/kg [IU/kg] without GPI and 60 IU/kg with GPI). Any of the following approved GPIs were used either as a routine strategy or as a bail out: eptifibatide (two 180-micrograms/kilogram [μg/kg] IV boluses with a 10-minute [min] interval followed by an infusion of 2.0 μg/kg/min for 72-96 hours); tirofiban (25 μg/kg followed by an infusion of 0.15 μg/kg/min for 18-24 hours); or abciximab (bolus of 0.25 mg/kg followed by an infusion of 0.125 μg/kg/min for 12-24 hours [maximum dose of 10 μg/min]).

For this study, the control consisted of treatment with UFH or low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) with or without GPI and is referred to as "heparins with optional GPI."

Drug: Heparin
Other Names:
  • UFH
  • LMWH

Detailed Description:

The purpose of the trial is to show that the early administration of bivalirudin improves 30-day outcomes when compared to the current standard of care in participants with STE-ACS, with an onset of symptoms of >20 minutes and <12 hours, intended for a primary PCI management strategy, presenting either via ambulance or to centers where PCI is not performed.

All participants are to receive treatment with aspirin (150-325 milligrams [mg] administered orally or 250-500 mg intravenously [IV]), followed by 75-100 milligrams/day (mg/day) for at least 1 year and a loading dose of an approved P2Y12 receptor blocker, such as clopidogrel, prasugrel, or ticagrelor, that was to be continued as per European Society of Cardiology guidelines (preferably for 1 year) in all participants.

The primary objectives of the trial are to show that, when compared with standard anti-thrombotic therapies other than bivalirudin (which includes treatment with unfractionated heparin [UFH] and optional glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor [GPI]) that at 30 days:

• Bivalirudin is superior to control at reducing a composite of death and non-coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)-related protocol major bleeding.

  Eligibility

Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Senior)
Genders Eligible for Study:   Both
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

The decision to randomize participants was made by a qualified physician or paramedic who was present at the time.

Participants were included in the study if they presented either via ambulance or to a center where PCI was not performed and met all of the following criteria:

  1. Provided written informed consent before initiation of any study related procedures. Participants randomized in the ambulance may initially have signed an abridged version.
  2. Aged ≥18 years at the time of randomization.
  3. Had a presumed diagnosis of STE-ACS with onset of symptoms of >20 minutes and <12 hours with one or more of the following:

    • ST segment elevation of ≥1 millimeters (mm) in ≥2 contiguous leads
    • Presumably new left bundle branch block
    • An infero-lateral myocardial infarction with ST segment depression of ≥1 mm in ≥2 of leads V1-3 with a positive terminal T wave
  4. All participants would proceed with emergent angiography and primary PCI if indicated <2 hours after first medical contact

Exclusion Criteria:

Participants were excluded from the study if any of the following exclusion criteria applied prior to randomization:

  1. Any bleeding diathesis or severe hematological disease or history of intra-cerebral mass, aneurysm, arterio-venous malformation, hemorrhagic stroke, intra-cranial hemorrhage, or gastrointestinal or genitourinary bleeding within the last 2 weeks.
  2. Participants who had undergone recent surgery (including biopsy) within the last 2 weeks.
  3. Participants who were on warfarin (not applicable if International Normalized Ratio known to be <1.5).
  4. Participants who had received UFH, LMWH, or bivalirudin immediately before randomization.
  5. Thrombolytic therapy within the last 48 hours.
  6. Absolute contra-indications or allergy that could not be pre-medicated to iodinated contrast or to any of the study medications including aspirin or clopidogrel.
  7. Contraindications to angiography, including but not limited to severe peripheral vascular disease.
  8. If it was known, pregnant or nursing mothers. Women of child-bearing age were asked if they were pregnant or thought that they may be pregnant.
  9. If it is known, a creatinine clearance <30 milliliter/minute or dialysis dependent.
  10. Previous enrolment in this study.
  11. Treatment with other investigational drugs or devices within the 30 days preceding randomization or planned use of other investigational drugs or devices in this trial.
  12. Participants may not have been enrolled if the duration of randomized investigational medicinal product anti-thrombin infusion was likely to be <30 minutes from the time of onset to the commencement of angiography.
  13. Participants may not have been enrolled within a primary PCI-capable hospital (unless at the time of randomization, the catheter laboratory was not available, and the participant required transfer to another primary PCI capable hospital).
  14. Estimated body weight of >120 kg
  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01087723

  Show 145 Study Locations
Sponsors and Collaborators
The Medicines Company
Investigators
Study Chair: Gabriel Steg, Prof Executive Committee
Study Chair: Christian Hamm, BSc, MD, PhD International Steering Committee
  More Information

Publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):

Responsible Party: The Medicines Company
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01087723     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: TMC-BIV-08-03 
Study First Received: March 12, 2010
Results First Received: January 13, 2016
Last Updated: January 13, 2016
Health Authority: Austria: Federal Office for Safety in Health Care

Keywords provided by The Medicines Company:
EUROMAX
STEMI
STE-ACS
UFH
bivalirudin
PCI
ambulance study
STE-MI participants

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Acute Coronary Syndrome
Syndrome
Myocardial Ischemia
Heart Diseases
Cardiovascular Diseases
Vascular Diseases
Disease
Pathologic Processes
Calcium heparin
Bivalirudin
Heparin
Hirudins
Anticoagulants
Fibrinolytic Agents
Fibrin Modulating Agents
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Antithrombins
Serine Proteinase Inhibitors
Protease Inhibitors
Enzyme Inhibitors

ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on August 22, 2016