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Study of Denosumab as Adjuvant Treatment for Women With High Risk Early Breast Cancer Receiving Neoadjuvant or Adjuvant Therapy (D-CARE)

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01077154
Recruitment Status : Terminated (Terminated: Amgen decision following Primary Analysis. Not due to safety reason)
First Posted : February 26, 2010
Results First Posted : October 3, 2018
Last Update Posted : October 3, 2018
Sponsor:
Collaborator:
Daiichi Sankyo, Inc.
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Amgen

Brief Summary:
This randomized phase 3 trial is studying the effect of denosumab to see if it can prevent disease recurrence in the bone or in any other part of the body, when it is given as adjuvant therapy for women with early-stage breast cancer, who are at high risk of disease recurrence.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Breast Cancer Drug: Placebo Drug: Denosumab Phase 3

Detailed Description:

Eligible participants were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive denosumab 120 mg or placebo subcutaneously (SC) for up to 5 years. Randomization was stratified based on:

  1. Breast cancer therapy/lymph node (LN) status: neoadjuvant therapy/any LN status versus adjuvant therapy/LN negative (based on axillary LN dissection, or based on sentinel node status) versus adjuvant therapy/LN positive
  2. Hormone receptor (estrogen receptor [ER]/progesterone receptor [PR]) status: ER and/or PR positive versus ER and PR negative
  3. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) status: HER-2 positive versus HER-2 negative
  4. Age: < 50 years versus ≥ 50 years
  5. Geographic Region: Japan versus Other regions.

The primary analysis was conducted after all enrolled participants had the opportunity to complete 5 years of treatment from study day 1.


Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 4509 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Quadruple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Multi-Center Phase 3 Study of Denosumab as Adjuvant Treatment for Women With Early-Stage Breast Cancer at High Risk of Recurrence (D-CARE)
Actual Study Start Date : June 2, 2010
Actual Primary Completion Date : August 31, 2017
Actual Study Completion Date : March 26, 2018

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MedlinePlus related topics: Breast Cancer
Drug Information available for: Denosumab

Arm Intervention/treatment
Placebo Comparator: Placebo
Participants received placebo subcutaneous injections once every 4 weeks for 6 months followed by placebo subcutaneous injections once every 3 months for 4.5 years.
Drug: Placebo
Administered subcutaneously for up to 5 years

Experimental: Denosumab
Participants received denosumab 120 mg subcutaneous injections once every 4 weeks for 6 months followed by denosumab 120 mg subcutaneous injections once every 3 months for 4.5 years.
Drug: Denosumab
Administered subcutaneously for up to 5 years
Other Name: XGEVA®




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Bone Metastasis-free Survival (BMFS) [ Time Frame: From randomization until the data cut-off date of 31 August 2017; median (minimum, maximum) time on study was 67.2 (0.0, 85.9) and 67.0 (0.0, 86.6) months in each treatment group respectively. ]

    BMFS time was defined as the time interval from the randomization date to the first occurrence of bone metastasis or death from any cause, whichever came first. Participants last known to be alive with no bone metastasis were censored at their last assessment date, or at the primary analysis data cut-off date, whichever was first. Participants who had first occurrence of bone metastasis before randomization were censored at their randomization date.

    Bone metastasis must have been confirmed by central imaging analysis or by biopsy, Evidence of disseminated tumor cells in bone marrow was not sufficient for determination of disease recurrence. Development of new primary malignancy in bone was not considered as bone metastasis.

    Since the median BMSF time could not be estimated due to low number of events, the percentage of participants with an event (i.e., bone metastasis or death) is reported.



Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Disease-free Survival (DFS) [ Time Frame: From randomization until the data cut-off date of 31 August 2017; median (minimum, maximum) time on study was 67.2 (0.0, 85.9) and 67.0 (0.0, 86.6) months in each treatment group respectively. ]

    DFS time was defined as the time interval from the randomization date to the date of first observation of disease recurrence or death from any cause, whichever was first. Participants last known to be alive with no disease recurrence were censored at their last assessment date, or at the primary analysis data cut-off date, whichever was first. Participants who had first disease recurrence before randomization were censored at their randomization date.

    Disease recurrence includes bone metastasis and extraosseous disease (EOD) confirmed by central imaging analysis or by biopsy/cytology. Development of non-breast cancer new primary malignancy was not considered as disease recurrence.

    Since the median DFS time could not be estimated due to low number of events, the percentage of participants with an event (i.e., disease recurrence or death) is reported.


  2. Disease-free Survival (DFS) in the Postmenopausal Subset [ Time Frame: From randomization until the data cut-off date of 31 August 2017; median (minimum, maximum) time on study was 67.2 (0.0, 85.9) and 67.0 (0.0, 86.6) months in each treatment group respectively. ]

    DFS time was defined as the time interval from the randomization date to the date of first observation of disease recurrence or death from any cause, whichever was first. Participants last known to be alive with no disease recurrence were censored at their last assessment date, or at the primary analysis data cut-off date, whichever was first. Participants who had first disease recurrence before randomization were censored at their randomization date.

    Disease recurrence includes bone metastasis and extraosseous disease (EOD) confirmed by central imaging analysis or by biopsy/cytology. Development of non-breast cancer new primary malignancy was not considered as disease recurrence.

    Since the median DFS time in the postmenopausal subset could not be estimated due to low number of events, the percentage of participants with an event (i.e., disease recurrence or death) is reported.


  3. Overall Survival [ Time Frame: From randomization until the data cut-off date of 31 August 2017; median (minimum, maximum) time on study was 67.2 (0.0, 85.9) and 67.0 (0.0, 86.6) months in each treatment group respectively. ]

    Overall survival (OS) time was defined as the time interval from the randomization date to the date of death from any cause.

    Participants last known to be alive were censored at their last contact date, or at the primary analysis data cut-off date, whichever came first.

    Since the median time to overall survival could not be estimated at the time of the analysis cut-off date due to low numbers of events, the percentage of participants with an event (i.e., death) is reported.


  4. Distant Recurrence-free Survival [ Time Frame: From randomization until the data cut-off date of 31 August 2017; median (minimum, maximum) time on study was 67.2 (0.0, 85.9) and 67.0 (0.0, 86.6) months in each treatment group respectively. ]

    Distant recurrence-free survival (DRFS) was defined as the time interval from the randomization date to the date of first observation of distant disease recurrence or death from any cause, whichever came first. Participants last known to be alive, who had not experienced distant disease recurrence, were censored at their last assessment date, or at the primary analysis data cut-off date, whichever was first. Participants who had first distant recurrence before randomization were censored at their randomization date.

    Distant disease recurrence includes confirmed bone metastasis and extraosseous disease other than local-regional disease recurrence. Development of non-breast cancer new primary malignancy was not considered as distant disease recurrence.

    Since the median time to DRFS could not be estimated due to the low number of events, the percentage of participants with an event (i.e., distant recurrence or death) is reported.




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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   Female
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Histologically confirmed, American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage II or III breast cancer
  • High risk of breast cancer recurrence, defined as documented evidence of one or more of the following criteria:

    i) Biopsy evidence of breast cancer in regional lymph node(s) (LN) (node-positive disease); Nodal micrometastases only are not considered node positive ii) Tumor size > 5 cm (T3) or locally advanced disease (T4)

  • Documented pathological evaluation of the breast cancer for hormone receptor (estrogen receptor [ER] and progesterone receptor [PR]) status and HER-2 status
  • Subjects must be receiving or be scheduled to receive standard of care systemic adjuvant or neoadjuvant chemotherapy and/or endocrine therapy and/or HER-2 targeted therapy
  • For subjects receiving adjuvant therapy only:
  • subjects must have undergone complete resection of the primary tumor with clean surgical margins, or subjects must have undergone resection of the primary tumor and be scheduled for further treatment of the primary tumor with curative intent. Definitive treatment must be planned to be completed within approximately 9 months of randomization
  • Time between definitive surgery and randomization must be ≤ 12 weeks. Definitive surgery may include secondary interventions (e.g. to clear inadequate surgical margins)
  • Subjects with node positive disease must have undergone treatment of axillary LN with curative intent, or subjects must be scheduled for further treatment of regional lymph nodes with curative intent. Definitive treatment must be planned to be completed within approximately 9 months of randomization
  • Subjects must not have received prior neoadjuvant treatment. Endocrine treatment for less than 30 days prior to surgery is not considered prior neoadjuvant treatment
  • For subjects receiving neoadjuvant therapy only:
  • Time between start of neoadjuvant treatment and randomization must be ≤ 8 weeks and subjects must be scheduled to undergo definitive treatment (including surgery and/or radiotherapy) with curative intent within approximately 9 months of starting neoadjuvant treatment
  • Female subjects with age ≥ 18 years
  • Subjects with reproductive potential must have a negative pregnancy test within 14 days before randomization
  • Serum calcium or albumin-adjusted serum calcium ≥ 2.0 mmol/L (8.0 mg/dL) and ≤ 2.9 mmol/L (11.5 mg/dL)
  • Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0 or 1
  • Written informed consent before any study-specific procedure is performed

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Prior or current evidence of any metastatic involvement of any distant site
  • History of breast cancer (other than ductal carcinoma in situ [DCIS] or lobular carcinoma in situ [LCIS]) prior to the current diagnosis
  • Osteoporosis requiring treatment at the time of randomization or treatment considered likely to become necessary within the subsequent six months
  • Any prior or synchronous malignancy (other than breast cancer), except i) Malignancy treated with curative intent and with no evidence of disease for ≥ 5 years prior to enrollment and considered to be at low risk for recurrence by the treating physician ii) Adequately treated non-melanoma skin cancer or lentigo maligna without evidence of disease
  • Active infection with Hepatitis B virus or Hepatitis C virus
  • Known infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
  • Prior history or current evidence of osteomyelitis/osteonecrosis of the jaw
  • Active dental or jaw condition which requires oral surgery
  • Planned invasive dental procedure for the course of the study
  • Non-healed dental or oral surgery
  • Use of oral bisphosphonates within the past 1 year
  • Prior or current IV bisphosphonate administration
  • Prior administration of denosumab
  • Subject currently is enrolled in or has not yet completed at least 30 days since ending other investigational device or investigational drug study(s), or subject is receiving other investigational agent(s)
  • Subject is pregnant or breast feeding, or planning to become pregnant within 7 months after the end of treatment.
  • Subject is of child bearing potential and is not willing to use, in combination with her partner, 2 highly effective methods of contraception or abstinence during treatment and for 5 months after the end of treatment
  • Subject has known sensitivity to any of the products to be administered during the study (e.g., mammalian derived products, calcium, or vitamin D)
  • Subject has any kind of disorder that compromises the ability of the subject to give written informed consent and/or to comply with study procedures.
  • Any major medical or psychiatric disorder that in the opinion of the investigator prevent the subject from completing the study or interfere with the interpretation of the study results

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT01077154


  Show 459 Study Locations
Sponsors and Collaborators
Amgen
Daiichi Sankyo, Inc.
Investigators
Study Director: MD Amgen
  Study Documents (Full-Text)

Documents provided by Amgen:
Study Protocol  [PDF] October 17, 2016
Statistical Analysis Plan  [PDF] November 15, 2017


Additional Information:
Responsible Party: Amgen
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01077154     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 20060359
2009-011299-32 ( EudraCT Number )
First Posted: February 26, 2010    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: October 3, 2018
Last Update Posted: October 3, 2018
Last Verified: September 2018

Keywords provided by Amgen:
Early Stage Breast Cancer
Bone Metastasis
Adjuvant treatment
Neoadjuvant treatment
Denosumab
Stage II breast cancer
Stage III breast cancer
Stage IIA breast cancer
Stage IIB breast cancer
Stage IIIA breast cancer
Stage IIIB breast cancer
Stage IIIC breast cancer
Early breast cancer
Breast Tumors
Breast Neoplasms

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Breast Neoplasms
Neoplasms by Site
Neoplasms
Breast Diseases
Skin Diseases
Denosumab
Bone Density Conservation Agents
Physiological Effects of Drugs