Primary Outcome Measures:
- The difference in serum nickel levels [ Time Frame: 1 month post device implantation ]
Secondary Outcome Measures:
- Device allergic syndrome [ Time Frame: 1 month ]
This is a single-center, single-operator, investigator-initiated, investigator-funded, open-label, non-randomized cohort study. Inclusion criteria include patients ≥18 years, secundum atrial septal defect (ASD) ≤1cm on transesophageal echocardiography or patent foramen ovale (PFO), without contraindications to antiplatelet and/or antithrombotic therapy, and suitable anatomy for device closure with one of the following: Amplatzer atrial septal occluder, Amplatzer Cribriform septal occluder, Amplatzer PFO occluder, or the Gore Helex septal occluder. After device implantation, routine clinical followup will be performed, including transthoracic echocardiography at 1 day, 1 month, and 6 months, and 48-Holter monitoring for arrhythmia at 1 month.
Research related study procedures are blood draws to measure nickel levels and a patient questionnaire about symptoms. Blood draws will be done at baseline [from the femoral venous sheath immediately prior to device implantation] and at one (1) day, one (1) month, three (3) months and six (6) months. The Questionnaire will be completed at one (1) month, three (3) months and six (6) months but can be done over the telephone if patient is having blood drawn at a lab closer to their home. Patient participation is complete after collection of the 6 month blood results and patient questionnaire.