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Effectiveness of Creatine Supplementation and Exercise on Muscle and Bone

This study has been completed.
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Phil Chilibeck, University of Saskatchewan Identifier:
First received: January 26, 2010
Last updated: December 26, 2012
Last verified: December 2012

As we age, we experience a reduction in muscle and bone which inevitably decreases strength and the ability to perform tasks of daily living such as gardening, carrying groceries, and climbing stairs. Health costs associated with aging muscle and bone loss are in the billions of dollars. With the projected increase in life expectancy, the incidence of muscle and bone loss will rise and further drain the healthcare system, with greater need for hospitalization, treatment, and rehabilitation. Without effective strategies to counteract aging muscle and bone loss, we may face a healthcare crisis in the future. Creatine, a compound found in red meat and seafood, increases creatine phosphate stores in muscle, providing increased energy during high-intensity exercise. Short-term (i.e. 3-4 months) resistance-exercise and supplementation with creatine, have been shown to have a favorable effect on properties of aging muscle and bone. However, the longer-term (i.e. 1 year) effects of these interventions are unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this innovative research is to determine the longer-term effects of resistance-exercise and creatine supplementation (0.1g•kg-1) in older adults. The primary dependent variables to be assessed will include muscle hypertrophy, bone mineral and bone geometry, strength, and urinary and blood indicators of liver and kidney function. This innovative, multidisciplinary research will help contribute to the successful pursuit of prolonged independent living by improving aging musculoskeletal health for older Saskatchewan adults. Saskatchewan provides a relevant setting for this research, given the higher percentage of older adults (15%), compared to the national average (12%).

We hypothesize that creatine supplementation will increase muscle mass, strength, and bone mineral density more than placebo.

Condition Intervention Phase
Dietary Supplement: creatine monohydrate
Dietary Supplement: sugar placebo
Phase 3

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Double Blind (Participant, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Prevention
Official Title: Potential of Resistance-Exercise and Creatine Supplementation on Aging Musculoskeletal Health

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by University of Saskatchewan:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Lumbar spine bone mineral density [ Time Frame: Baseline and 12 months ]

Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Proximal femur bone mineral density [ Time Frame: Baseline and 12 months ]
  • Whole body bone mineral density [ Time Frame: baseline and 12 months ]
  • lean tissue mass [ Time Frame: baseline and 12 months ]
  • Muscular strength [ Time Frame: baseline and 12 months ]
  • Muscle thickness [ Time Frame: baseline and 12 months ]
  • Bone speed of sound [ Time Frame: Baseline and 12 months ]
  • bone geometry [ Time Frame: baseline and 12 months ]
  • Complete blood count [ Time Frame: baseline, 4 months, 8 months, 12 months ]
  • Liver enzymes [ Time Frame: baseline, 4 months, 8 months, 12 months ]
  • kidney function (creatinine clearance) [ Time Frame: baseline, 4 months, 8 months, 12 months ]

Enrollment: 90
Study Start Date: January 2010
Study Completion Date: February 2012
Primary Completion Date: February 2012 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: creatine
This arm will involve creatine supplementation 0.1 g per kg body mass per day while participating in a resistance training program (1 hour per day, 3 days per week).
Dietary Supplement: creatine monohydrate
Powder, 0.1 g per day, 12 months
Other Name: Rivalus
Placebo Comparator: Sugar
This arm will involve placebo (maltodextrin) given every day while the participant does a resistance training program (1 hour per day, 3 days per week).
Dietary Supplement: sugar placebo
powder, 0.1 g/day, 12 months


Ages Eligible for Study:   50 Years and older   (Adult, Senior)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes

Inclusion Criteria:

  • greater than or equal to 50 years of age
  • males or postmenopausal females
  • not currently participating in resistance training

Exclusion Criteria:

  • pre-existing kidney abnormalities
  • previous fragility fractures
  • history of taking medications that affect bone mineral density in the past year including bisphosphonates, parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, hormone replacement therapy, or corticosteroids (i.e. within the past year)
  • suffer from severe osteoarthritis
  • have taken creatine supplementation within the past 6 months
  Contacts and Locations
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Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT01057680

Canada, Saskatchewan
Faculty of Kinesiology and Health Sciences
Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada, S4S 0A2
College of Kinesiology, University of Saskatchewan
Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, S7N 5B2
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of Saskatchewan
Principal Investigator: Philip Chilibeck, Ph.D. University of Saskatchewan
Principal Investigator: Darren Candow, Ph.D. University of Regina
  More Information

Responsible Party: Phil Chilibeck, Professor, University of Saskatchewan Identifier: NCT01057680     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 09-169
Study First Received: January 26, 2010
Last Updated: December 26, 2012

Keywords provided by University of Saskatchewan:

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Bone Diseases, Metabolic
Bone Diseases
Musculoskeletal Diseases
Muscular Atrophy
Neuromuscular Manifestations
Neurologic Manifestations
Nervous System Diseases
Pathological Conditions, Anatomical
Signs and Symptoms processed this record on April 27, 2017