Try our beta test site
IMPORTANT: Listing of a study on this site does not reflect endorsement by the National Institutes of Health. Talk with a trusted healthcare professional before volunteering for a study. Read more...

Impact of Helmet Use in Preschool Children

This study has been completed.
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Thein H Zhu, Parkview Hospital, Indiana Identifier:
First received: January 21, 2010
Last updated: February 7, 2017
Last verified: February 2017
  • To test the hypothesis if provision of helmet education and free helmet distribution will significantly increase helmet use in preschool children of low-income families compared to those children receiving helmet education without free helmet distribution;
  • To test the hypothesis if helmet users in preschool children will significantly reduce head and facial injuries compared to those non-helmet users

Condition Intervention
Head Injuries
Facial Injuries
Other: Bicycle helmet from Bell Sports Inc.
Other: Bicycle helmet education only

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: No masking
Primary Purpose: Prevention
Official Title: The Impact of Helmet Use in Preschool Children From Low-income Families in Northeastern Indiana

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by Thein H Zhu, Parkview Hospital, Indiana:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Percentage of Participants Wearing Helmet [ Time Frame: Baseline (Survey 1) and 5 months (Survey 2) ]

Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Incidence Rate of Head and Facial Injuries by Helmet Wearing Status in Helmet Owners [ Time Frame: 5 months ]
    Number of injuries by helmet wearing status as reported

Enrollment: 609
Study Start Date: May 2008
Study Completion Date: January 2009
Primary Completion Date: November 2008 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: Helmet and helmet education
Each participant preschool child received a free bicycle Bell helmet, manufactured by Bell Sports Inc., Rantoul IL, USA. In addition, classroom bicycle helmet education was provided to all participant children and their caregivers, consisting of a video on rules of biking and the importance of proper helmet use and a classroom melon drop demonstration with and without a helmet to participants and their caregivers.
Other: Bicycle helmet from Bell Sports Inc.
As described under the respective arm
Other Name: Bell bicycle helmets
Active Comparator: Helmet education
Each child did not receive a bicycle Bell helmet but the child and his/her caregiver was given bicycle helmet education package as above.
Other: Bicycle helmet education only
As described under the respective arm
Other Name: Bicycle helmet education

Detailed Description:

Current literature review shows that there were no definite prospective research studies that indicate the effectiveness of helmet promotion and wearing in injury prevention/reduction particularly to head and facial injuries among preschool children of low-income families.

The magnitude and seriousness of the injury problem in these children in the community could be high. Many injuries may occur that are not treated in emergency departments. Even the occurrence of a minor injury in the face is undesirable. These ages are learning periods to ride, are liable to fall, and are prone to injuries by using, not only, bicycles but also tricycles, scooters, roller skates/roller blades and other riding toys (vehicles).


Ages Eligible for Study:   3 Years to 5 Years   (Child)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Age 3-5 year olds and their siblings, registered at the Community Action of Northeast Indiana (CANI) Head Start Program
  • The child must possess a bicycle or a riding toy to ride
  • The child's caregiver speaks English or Spanish

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Age less than two or greater than 5-year olds
  • 3-5 year old children that do not own a bicycle or a riding toy to ride
  • The child's caregiver does not speak English or Spanish.
  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT01054846

United States, Indiana
Community Action of Northeast Indiana (CANI) Inc - Head Start
Fort Wayne, Indiana, United States, 46802
Sponsors and Collaborators
Parkview Hospital, Indiana
Study Director: Mary O Aaland, MD, FACS Parkview Hospital Trauma Center
Principal Investigator: Thein H Zhu, MBBS, FACE Parkview Hospital Trauma Center
  More Information

Additional Information:
Zhu TH; Aaland MO; Kerrigan C; Schiebel R; Henry H; Hollister L. Preventable head and facial injuries by providing free bicycle helmets and education to preschool children in a head start program. Health 2011 3(11):689-97

Responsible Party: Thein H Zhu, Trauma Epidemiologist, Parkview Hospital, Indiana Identifier: NCT01054846     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: Parkview - 001
Study First Received: January 21, 2010
Results First Received: November 9, 2016
Last Updated: February 7, 2017

Keywords provided by Thein H Zhu, Parkview Hospital, Indiana:
Bicycle helmet

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Wounds and Injuries
Craniocerebral Trauma
Facial Injuries
Trauma, Nervous System
Nervous System Diseases processed this record on May 25, 2017