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Randomised Exposure Study of Pollution Indoors and Respiratory Effects (RESPIRE)

This study has been completed.
World Health Organization
Universidad del Valle, Guatemala
University of Liverpool
Information provided by:
University of California, Berkeley Identifier:
First received: January 12, 2010
Last updated: NA
Last verified: August 2009
History: No changes posted
The purpose of this study was to determine whether reduced exposure to indoor air pollution would reduce ALRI incidence in children <18 months of age. Households were randomized to receive a chimney stove (intervention group) or continue using an open fire for cooking and heating (control group).

Condition Intervention
Respiratory Tract Infections Pneumonia Device: Plancha

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Single (Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Prevention
Official Title: Particulate Air Pollution Exposure and Childhood Acute Respiratory Infections in Guatemala: A Randomized Intervention

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by University of California, Berkeley:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • The primary outcome measure was physician-diagnosed pneumonia in children [ Time Frame: Through 18 months of age ]

Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Severe (hypoxaemic) and RSV pneumonia [ Time Frame: Through 18 months of age ]

Enrollment: 537
Study Start Date: October 2002
Study Completion Date: March 2005
Primary Completion Date: December 2004 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
No Intervention: Open fire
Households continuing to use an open fire for cooking and heating
Experimental: Chimney stove
Households randomized to receive a chimney stove (plancha) for cooking and heating
Device: Plancha
locally developed chimney stove

Detailed Description:
Acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) are the chief killer of children. Most cases are pneumonia and the majority occur among poor children under five years in developing countries. Poverty might be said to be the primary cause, which manifests as malnutrition, including micro-nutrient deficiencies, and lack of access to medical care. Another attribute of poverty is household indoor air pollution (HAP) from use of unprocessed solid fuels such as biomass (wood, animal dung and crop wastes) and coal in simple stoves. A meta-analysis of published observational studies found that young children exposed to smoke from household solid fuel use had a rate of ALRI twice that of children not exposed or where clean fuels were used. Recent studies have shown similar ALRI risks associated with short-term air pollution measurements and other indicators of exposure.

Ages Eligible for Study:   up to 18 Months   (Child)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes

Inclusion Criteria:

Households were invited to participate in the study if they met the following inclusion criteria:

  • Used only an open fire for cooking and heating
  • Had a pregnant woman or child < 4 months residing in the home
  • Identified as Mam (the regional ethnic group), and had
  • Minimal summer migration (less than 12 weeks per year)

Exclusion Criteria:

Households were excluded from participating if:

  • The household was already using a chimney stove for cooking
  • There was no child <4 months of age or a pregnant woman residing in the home
  • Seasonal migration required the family to move to another region for more than 12 weeks of the year
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Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT01047696

San Lorenzo, Guatemala
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of California, Berkeley
World Health Organization
Universidad del Valle, Guatemala
University of Liverpool
Principal Investigator: Kirk R Smith, PhD, MPH UC Berkeley
  More Information


Responsible Party: Prof. Kirk R. Smith, UC Berkeley Identifier: NCT01047696     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 2003-8-165
R01ES010178 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
Study First Received: January 12, 2010
Last Updated: January 12, 2010

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Respiratory Tract Infections
Lung Diseases
Respiratory Tract Diseases processed this record on August 18, 2017