Evaluating Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation for Postoperative Pain After Video-Assisted Thoracotomy Surgery
|ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01046695|
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : January 12, 2010
Results First Posted : December 11, 2012
Last Update Posted : December 19, 2012
We propose to evaluate the use of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) in patients having undergone Video-Assisted Thoracotomy Surgery (VATS) with the aim to determine if:
- Nurses will be able to apply TENS effectively and in a timely manner to post VATS patients.
- Use of TENS immediately after thoracic surgery and for the first 48 hours will add to patient's pain control.
- Tens will reduce medication use.
- Tens will reduce nausea and vomiting.
|Condition or disease||Intervention/treatment||Phase|
|Postoperative Pain||Device: TENS Unit||Not Applicable|
Video-Assisted Thoracotomy (VATS) patient's post procedure pain is a significant problem that may delay the recovery of thoracic surgery patients. Without adequate control of pain, the patient's mobilization and ability to participate in bronchial hygiene is compromised increasing the risk for pulmonary complications and inhibiting the body's natural healing ability. When acute post VATS pain is poorly controlled, the incidence of chronic post VATS pain six months or longer after the surgery increases. Post-operative pain is controlled largely through the use of pain medications delivered by a variety of routes including: epidural, intravenous, and when able, oral. Medications used include opioids which have side effects such as nausea, dizziness, drowsiness and constipation that may further delay the patient's recovery and prolong the hospital stay.
Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) is a method of pain relief that uses cutaneously applied electrodes that deliver electrical signals to peripheral nerves through the intact skin. Treating pain with TENS results in the patient having a reduced perception of pain. The effectiveness of TENS is based on two mechanisms: 1) the gate control theory of pain relief where stimulation of myelinated sensory fibers disrupts neuronal processing in the substantia gelatinosa of the spinal cord, and 2) the stimulation-induced release of endogenous opioids, both in the central nervous system and the general circulation. The present practice for obtaining and applying a TENS unit on a patient for pain relief requires consultation with Physical Therapy who will come and assess the patient and then apply the TENS unit and make recommendations for settings and therapy. This process limits the response to only daytime and often results in a delay in initiation of treatment. After providing education and training it is anticipated that nurses could successfully apply a TENS unit and initiate therapy early in the immediate post operative period. The more timely application of a TENS unit to a post VATS patient could improve pain management outcomes for this population.
Patient's primary area of postoperative pain was determined by nursing personnel. Four electrodes were placed on or around the area of maximum pain by nurses trained in TENS therapy. The TENS unit was turned on, 1 of 5 frequency patterns selected and the impulse turned up until the patient could feel the impulse. The 5 program options available included: #1. Alternate Ramped Burst (ARB) (Rate = 100 pps; Ramp Up Time = 0.5s; On Time = 5s; Off Time = 6s). #2. Simple Modulated Pulse (SMP) (Rate = 125 pps; Cycle Time = 12s; Span Percentage = 40%; Rate stays in the 2-10 pps range for 1/3 of the cycle time (4 seconds) as the rate modulates down to 2 pulses per second (pps) and then back up again. #3. Modulated Amplitude (MA) (Rate = 125 pps; Cycle Time = 1s; Span Percentage = 60%). #4. Simple Modulated Pulse (SMP) (Rate = 125 pps; Cycle Time = 12s; Span Percentage = 40%; Rate stays in the 2-10 pps range for 1/3 of the cycle time (4 seconds) as the rate modulates down to 2 pulses per second (pps) and then back up again). #5 Modulated Amplitude, MA (Rate = 125 pps; Cycle Time = 1s; Span Percentage = 60%). The location of the electrodes, the pattern, and/or the intensity of the TENS unit were adjusted until the patient achieved maximum comfort with the sensation. Five minutes after initiation of TENS therapy and every hour there after - while patient was awake- for a total of 48 hours, the patient was reassessed by nursing staff and TENS settings were adjusted for patient comfort and pain control.
|Study Type :||Interventional (Clinical Trial)|
|Actual Enrollment :||56 participants|
|Intervention Model:||Parallel Assignment|
|Masking:||None (Open Label)|
|Official Title:||Evaluating Efficacy of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) for Postoperative Pain After Video-Assisted Thoracotomy Surgery (VATS)|
|Study Start Date :||March 2010|
|Actual Primary Completion Date :||September 2010|
|Actual Study Completion Date :||September 2010|
Active Comparator: TENS Unit
This arm will be adding the use of the TENS unit for 48 hours in addition to standard care for their post operative pain control.
Patient's primary area of postoperative pain was determined by nursing personnel. Four electrodes were placed on or around the area of maximum pain. The TENS unit was turned on, 1 of 5 frequency patterns selected and the impulse turned up until the patient could feel the impulse. The location of the electrodes, the pattern, and/or the intensity of the TENS unit were adjusted until the patient achieved maximum comfort with the sensation.
Device: TENS Unit
TENS is a method of pain relief that uses a battery operated electronic device with cutaneously applied electrodes that deliver electrical signals to peripheral nerves through the intact skin. The TENS Unit is a low voltage system that will only be used to a level to create alternative to pain sensation and will not create muscle response.
Other Name: Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation unit
No Intervention: Control Arm
This arm will have standard care for their post operative pain control.
- Mean Pain Score [ Time Frame: hour 1 to hour 48 after awakening from video-assisted thoracic surgery ]Pain was measured by using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) with a range from 1-10; with 0 being no pain and 10 being severe pain. Pain scores were measured from hour 1 to hour 48 for each patient. Some scores were missed when patients were asleep. In these cases, the previous score was used.
- Mean Opioid Use, Converted Into Oral Morphine Equivalents (OME) at 24 and 48 Hours [ Time Frame: 24 hours and 48 hours after awakening from video-assisted thoracic surgery ]As subjects could have been prescribed many different analgesics, the amount of pain medication was converted to the standard oral morphine equivalents (OME), so that the mean dose needed could be compared.
- Satisfaction With Pain Control at 48 Hours [ Time Frame: 48 hours after awakening from video-assisted thoracic surgery ]Pain control was measured by using a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) with a range from 0-10; with 0 being very satisfied and 10 being very dissatisfied.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT01046695
|United States, Minnesota|
|Rochester, Minnesota, United States, 55905|
|Principal Investigator:||Deborah J. Engen, O.T.||Mayo Clinic|
|Principal Investigator:||Dietlind L. Wahner-Roedler, M.D.||Mayo Clinic|