Pilot Study of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) in Nicotine Addiction
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|ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01031693|
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : December 14, 2009
Last Update Posted : April 5, 2018
- Treatment for nicotine addiction is characterized by high rates of relapse. New treatment therapies for nicotine addiction are exploring the use of brain scanning equipment to control and decrease nicotine and cigarette cravings.
- Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) uses magnetic pulses to stimulate the brain. These pulses can change activity in parts of the brain. Researchers are interested in determining whether TMS delivered in single pulses can decrease activity in the parts of the brain that respond to nicotine craving.
- To determine whether single pulse TMS can reduce cue-induced nicotine craving and use in cigarette smokers.
- Individuals 18 years of age and older who are physically healthy and have smoked 10 or more cigarettes per day for at least 1 year.
- A small group of healthy nonsmoking control subjects 18 years of age and older will also participate in the study.
- The study will involve seven study visits and two follow-up visits. The control participants will have only two visits: one with a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan and one with TMS to evaluate brain function and response.
- Participants will have an initial assessment about tobacco use habits and craving patterns, and will provide blood and urine samples before beginning the study.
- Participants will have two initial MRI brain scans. The first scan will look at the structure of the brain at rest. During the other scan, participants will look at images related to and not related to cigarette smoking.
- The single pulse TMS sessions (with either actual TMS or inactive [sham] TMS) will be held daily for 5 consecutive days. Magnetic pulses will be triggered by cigarette-related picture cues and delivered at varying intervals before the participant sees a cigarette-related picture. During these testing visits, researchers will ask questions related to tobacco use and craving, and collect urine and breath samples for further study.
- Participants will have two follow-up visits, 1 week and 2 weeks after the TMS sessions, to evaluate memory and mood, and will have one final MRI brain scan at the end of the study.
|Condition or disease||Intervention/treatment||Phase|
|Nicotine Dependence||Device: Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation||Phase 1|
Primary objective: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) provides a non-invasive means of inhibiting brain neural activity. This pilot study will test whether 5 days of single pulse (sp) TMS reduces cue-induced nicotine craving and use in cigarette smokers.
Hypothesis: We predict that active spTMS will significantly lower craving for nicotine compared with sham spTMS.
Study population: Subjects will be up to 73 adult cigarette smokers (averaging greater than or equal to 10 cigarettes daily for greater than or equal to one year) with current nicotine dependence (based on DSM-IV criteria or Faerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence score greater than or equal to 3). Subjects will not have other current major psychiatric disorders or substance abuse. Subjects in the pilot phase (one fMRI and one TMS session to valid brain mapping procedures) will be up to 25 healthy non-smokers.
Design: Following a baseline day to evaluate subject characteristics, subjects will be randomly assigned to receive 5 days of active or sham spTMS session. spTMS at strength 120 percent of the motor threshold will be applied to the prefrontal cortex (PFC) using a figure-eight coil. Magnetic pulses will be triggered by cigarette-related pictorial cues and delivered at varying intervals prior to presentation of a cigarette-related picture. TMS pulses will not be delivered during emotionally salient images unrelated to nicotine or emotionally neutral images. Brain site localization will use a computerized navigation system based on functional and structural MRI scans obtained before the first session. Each session (lasting around 20 minutes) will consist of 108 trials (cue presentations): 72 with nicotine-associated cues and 18 each with non-drug-associated positive or neutral cues. Subjects return for follow-up fMRI and behavioral assessments one and two weeks after the final TMS session.
Outcome measures: The primary outcome measure will be nicotine craving assessed with the Tobacco Craving Questionnaire and visual analog scales before and after every TMS session and at one- and two-week follow-up. Secondary outcome measures will include cigarette smoking over the test period and at follow-up assessed by self-report, salivary cotinine levels, and expired breath CO levels. A follow-up fMRI will evaluate changes in regional brain activity associated with changes in craving and TMS treatments.
Benefits: Participants will not directly benefit from this study. This study may contribute to better scientific understanding of nicotine addiction and development of better treatment methods.
Risks: The primary risks from TMS are transient headache, scalp discomfort, and hearing loss (minimized by wearing ear plugs). Seizures are very rare when spTMS is administered within accepted safety guidelines and individuals at increased risk of seizures are excluded. By excluding individuals with a history of non-drug-induced mania/ hypomania we minimize the risk of inducing a manic episode.
|Study Type :||Interventional (Clinical Trial)|
|Actual Enrollment :||75 participants|
|Intervention Model:||Parallel Assignment|
|Official Title:||Pilot Study of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) in Nicotine Addiction|
|Study Start Date :||July 13, 2009|
|Actual Primary Completion Date :||August 28, 2013|
|Actual Study Completion Date :||August 28, 2013|
Active Comparator: Group A
Device: Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
daily sessions for 5 days
Sham Comparator: Group B
Device: Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
daily sessions for 5 days
- Nicotine craving by Tobacco Craving Questionnaire and visual-analogue scales. [ Time Frame: 2 weeks ]
- Cigarette use by self-report, salivary cotinine level, and expired breath CO levels. [ Time Frame: 2 weeks ]
To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT01031693
|United States, Maryland|
|National Institute on Drug Abuse|
|Baltimore, Maryland, United States, 21224|
|Maryland Psychiatric Research Center (MPRC) 55 Wade Avenue|
|Catonsville, Maryland, United States, 21228|
|Principal Investigator:||David A Gorelick, M.D.||National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)|