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Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity-Sleep (CAP-S) Study (CAP-S)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT01020357
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : November 25, 2009
Last Update Posted : December 5, 2014
Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
McMaster University

Brief Summary:

Apnea of prematurity is a common condition that is usually treated with methylxanthines. Methylxanthines are adenosine receptor blockers that have powerful influences on the central nervous system. However, little is known about the long-term effects of methylxanthines on the developing brain.

The Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity-Sleep (CAP-S) Study is a sub-study of the main Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity (CAP) trial, an international placebo-controlled randomized trial of methylxanthine therapy for apnea of prematurity. This sub-study is designed to take advantage of this cohort of ex-premature, 5-7 year old children who were randomized at birth to receive either caffeine or placebo, and are currently receiving detailed neurocognitive and behavioral assessments in the CAP trial.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Apnea of Prematurity Drug: Caffeine citrate injection Drug: placebo Phase 3

Detailed Description:
The use of methylxanthines as therapy for apnea of prematurity may be a double-edged sword. Although widely-used, and efficacious for treatment of apnea of prematurity, long-term drug effects have not been rigorously studied. Neonatal methylxanthine therapy may have long-term impacts on sleep organization and ventilatory control. The CAP trial, funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, was initiated due to the paucity of well-controlled data on the long-term effects of methylxanthines in preterm infants. The initial CAP trial was a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of caffeine vs placebo as treatment for apnea of prematurity with follow-up to a corrected age of 18 months. 2,006 infants were enrolled. The CAP trial found that methylxanthines reduced the rates of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and cerebral palsy (CP), and did not affect mortality. However, concerns remain regarding long-term sequelae of methylxanthine use. The Canadian Institutes of Health Research have therefore funded further follow-up of the entire CAP trial cohort to age 5 years, corrected for prematurity. The key objectives of this study are to examine the impact of methylxanthines on neurocognition and behavior. This ongoing parent study provides an opportunity to determine potential long-term effects of methylxanthines on sleep disorders, and to correlate these findings with daytime functioning. Our overall hypothesis is that methylxanthine use in preterm infants, while beneficial in the short term, results in longstanding abnormalities in the regulation of sleep, and breathing during sleep.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 201 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Quadruple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Long-Term Effects On Sleep Of Methylxanthine Therapy For Apnea Of Prematurity
Study Start Date : November 2009
Actual Primary Completion Date : July 2013
Actual Study Completion Date : July 2013

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MedlinePlus related topics: Caffeine

Arm Intervention/treatment
Active Comparator: caffeine Drug: Caffeine citrate injection

Loading dose: 20 mg/kg administered over at least 30 minutes via IV infusion or over at least 10 minutes via slow IV injection.

Daily maintenance dose (to commence at least 24 hours after loading dose): 5 mg/kg, administered over at least 10 minutes via IV infusion, or over at least 5 minutes via slow IV injection. Maintenance dose to be adjusted for body weight every 7 days. If indicated, maintenance dose may be increased to a maximum of 10 mg/kg. May be given orally once full enteral feeds are established.

Duration of treatment: discontinue after infant has tolerated at least 5 consecutive days without positive pressure support AND when the infant is judged by the attending clinician to be no longer a candidate for methylxanthine therapy.

Other Name: CafCit

Placebo Comparator: placebo Drug: placebo
normal saline

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Aim 1: The primary outcome is the mean actual sleep time as measured by actigraphy, between subjects who received caffeine vs placebo. [ Time Frame: 5-7 years ]
  2. Aim 2: The primary outcome is the apnea hypopnea index (AHI) between subjects who received caffeine vs placebo. [ Time Frame: 5-7 years ]
  3. Aim 3: The primary outcome is the correlation between full-scale IQ from the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (measured in the CAP trial rather than directly from this protocol), sleep time and AHI. [ Time Frame: 5-7 years ]

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Questionnaire data: National Sleep Foundation (NSF) and Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ) scores [ Time Frame: 5-7 years ]
  2. Polysomnography data: Sleep architecture, arousal index, central apnea index, SpO2 and periodic limb movement index. [ Time Frame: 5-7 years ]

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   5 Years to 7 Years   (Child)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Males or females aged 5-7 years who are enrolled in the CAP trial.
  • Parental/guardian permission (informed consent) and if appropriate, child assent.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT01020357

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Mercy Hospital for Women
Melbourne, Australia
Royal Women's Hospital
Melbourne, Australia
Canada, Ontario
McMaster University Medical Centre
Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, L8S 4J9
Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre
Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5S 1B2
Sponsors and Collaborators
McMaster University
Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
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Principal Investigator: Carole Marcus, M.B.B.Ch. University of Pennsylvania
Publications of Results:
Other Publications:
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Responsible Party: McMaster University Identifier: NCT01020357    
Other Study ID Numbers: NIH-R01HL098045
R01HL098045 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
First Posted: November 25, 2009    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: December 5, 2014
Last Verified: December 2014
Keywords provided by McMaster University:
preterm infants
very low birthweight
apnea of prematurity
sleep disturbance
obstructive sleep apnea syndrome
sleep disruption
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Premature Birth
Respiration Disorders
Respiratory Tract Diseases
Signs and Symptoms, Respiratory
Obstetric Labor, Premature
Obstetric Labor Complications
Pregnancy Complications
Caffeine citrate
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Central Nervous System Stimulants
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors
Enzyme Inhibitors
Purinergic P1 Receptor Antagonists
Purinergic Antagonists
Purinergic Agents
Neurotransmitter Agents