Computerized Counseling to Promote Positive Prevention and HIV Health in Kenya (CARE+ Kenya)
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|ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01015989|
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : November 18, 2009
Last Update Posted : September 28, 2018
|Condition or disease||Intervention/treatment||Phase|
|HIV Infections||Other: CARE+ Kenya brief computer risk assessment session Other: CARE+ Kenya computer counseling session||Not Applicable|
Helping people living with HIV to remain healthy and reduce transmission to sexual partners ('positive prevention') can be accomplished by behavioral counseling and supporting adherence to infectivity-reducing antiretroviral therapy (ART). Positive prevention and ART adherence approaches that are not staff-dependent are urgently needed in Africa, the region hardest hit by HIV and decimated health workforce. Interactive health communication tools offer one approach. We will adapt a computerized counseling intervention found to be efficacious in reducing HIV-1 viral load and risk behaviors in the US ('CARE+') with the largest HIV provider in Kenya, the Academic Model for the Prevention and Treatment of HIV/AIDS (AMPATH). Aim 1: Adapt a theoretically driven computerized counseling intervention for use in Kenya ('CARE+_Kenya'). Conduct in-depth interviews with n≤ 50 urban and rural AMPATH patients to understand HIV support needs, and two staff focus groups to assess counseling practices and beliefs about computer use. Modify intervention content; translate and record audio into local Kiswahili. Adapt skill-building videos (e.g., on secondary prevention, HIV disclosure, ART adherence, reproductive health). Conduct software usability testing with n=20 patients and n=8 staff. Perform 3-day test-retest reliability assessment to establish psychometric performance of measures.
Aim 2: Establish biological and behavioral efficacy of CARE+_Kenya. Longitudinal randomized controlled trial (RCT) in one urban and one rural AMAPATH clinic. Randomly assign HIV-positive adults with any missed ART or unprotected sex in last 6 months, >1 sex partner in last year, or sexually transmitted infection (STI)diagnosis in last 3 years, to intervention (n=125) or risk-assessment control (n=125) for baseline, 3, 6, and 9 month sessions. HIV transmission risk will be measured by self-reported unprotected sex with HIV negative/unknown partner, and trends in Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and T. vaginalis. ART adherence will be measured by HIV-1 viral load, electronic monitoring, pharmacy refill, self-report, and clinic attendance. Aim 3: Establish cost-effectiveness of CARE+_Kenya. At baseline, follow 100 patients at each of the two clinics to evaluate standard of care counseling, and collect time-spent and facility data to determine costs and unmet counseling need. Conduct economic evaluation to compare CARE+_Kenya vs. standard of care. If the RCT shows that the intervention reduces viral load and transmission risk behaviors, we will use a Bernoulli transmission dynamics model to estimate number of secondary HIV infections prevented; then create a cost-effectiveness model to calculate 2 incremental cost-effectiveness ratios: 1) cost per HIV infection averted, and 2) cost per daily adjusted life year saved. If CARE+_Kenya is efficacious and efficient, we will develop a proposal for a cluster-randomized trial to assess translational effectiveness of CARE+_Kenya throughout the AMPATH system. This is directly responsive to PA-08-107's call for innovative, integrated interventions that leverage ART roll-out infrastructure in international settings to benefit people living with HIV.
|Study Type :||Interventional (Clinical Trial)|
|Actual Enrollment :||236 participants|
|Intervention Model:||Parallel Assignment|
|Masking Description:||The CARE Kenya counseling tool software randomizes the participant automatically to the control or intervention arms when the user first logs into the program, using a quasi-random number algorithm.|
|Primary Purpose:||Health Services Research|
|Official Title:||Computerized Counseling to Promote Positive Prevention and HIV Health in Kenya|
|Actual Study Start Date :||September 2011|
|Actual Primary Completion Date :||July 2012|
|Actual Study Completion Date :||June 2014|
|Active Comparator: CARE+ Kenya brief computer risk assessment session (control)||
Other: CARE+ Kenya brief computer risk assessment session
The computer will ask patients questions about taking HIV medicine. The computer will also ask patients questions about sexual and substance use activities. We will repeat the session every 3 months up to 9 months total.
|Active Comparator: Full CARE+ Spanish computer-counseling group||
Other: CARE+ Kenya computer counseling session
The computer will ask patients questions about taking HIV medicine. The computer will also ask patients questions about sexual and substance use activities. The computer will let patients look at short videos on various HIV medicine and HIV risk reduction topics and will then help patients create a health plan. Patients will get an anonymous print out at the end of the session and can choose to share with health care provider. There are questions about depression, suicide, or domestic violence. If a patient's answers indicate that they may be depressed, suicidal, or currently in an abusive relationship, we will refer them to a health worker at the clinic. We will repeat the session every 3 months up to 9 months total.
- ART adherence will be measured by HIV-1 viral load, electronic monitoring, pharmacy refill, self-report, and clinic attendance [ Time Frame: Every 3 months up to 9 months ]
- HIV transmission risk will be measured by self-reported unprotected sex with HIV negative/unknown partner, and trends in Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and T. vaginalis. [ Time Frame: Every 3 months up to 9 months ]
- We will conduct economic evaluation to compare CARE+ Kenya vs. standard of care. [ Time Frame: 9 months ]
- Qualitative exit interviews with patients [ Time Frame: At end of study ]
- Two focus groups with providers [ Time Frame: At end of study ]
To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT01015989
|AMPATH at Burnt Forest Health Centre|
|Burnt Forest, Rift Valley, Kenya|
|AMPATH Module 1|
|Principal Investigator:||Ann Kurth, PhD||NYU|