Primary Outcome Measures:
- dosage for glucose, free fatty acids (FFA) insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, GLP-1, GIP [ Time Frame: 3 test meals of 360 minutes duration each, taken at a time distance of 7-10 days . Overall duration, approximally 30 days for each patient. ]
For intestinal perfusion, a tube assembly (outer diameter 7 mm) marked with a length scale is used. It consists of six tubes that are bonded together with tetrahydrofuran (Sigma Chemical Corp, St Louis, Missouri, USA). Three tubes are connected to a balloon which is used to occlude the intestinal lumen proximal to the site of infusion. Three tubes are radio-opaque to allow fluoroscopic location of the assembly; their distal end is immediately distal to the proximal occluding balloon(perfusion site) and positioned at 60 cm (duodenum), 90 cm (proximal jejunum) and 120 cm (distal jejunum) from the nose. After a 12 hour fast, the subjects swallow the tube assembly. The position of the assembly is confirmed by fluoroscopy. With the tube in the right position, the occluding balloon is inflated with 60 ml of air and perfusion of the distal intestinal segment is started. . The perfusion is performed using a continuous pump according to the following scheme:
100 ml/h during 30 minutes 110 ml/h during 60 minutes 123 ml/h during 60 minutes 133 ml/h during 30 minutes test period, which is followed by 120 minute absorption period. Each subject will be studied in 3 different sessions at 7-10 days distance randomly selected in order to study the effect on insulin sensitivity and secretion of a test meal delivery in different intestinal segments (i.e. at the duodenum, the proximal jejunum, and the distal jejunum). Blood samples for glucose, free fatty acids (FFA) insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, GLP-1, GIP, are drawn at -30 minutes and at 0, 15, 30, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 150, 180, 240, 300 and 360 minutes during each of the test periods. The lipid-glucose-protein test meal is a mixture of ScandiShake(85 g of powder is mixed in 240-mL milk resulting in 69.5 g carbohydrates, 30.4 g fat, and 11.7 g protein).