- Progression-Free Survival (PFS) [ Time Frame: From baseline to the end of the study (up to 4.5 years) ]
Progression-free survival was defined as the time from randomization to objective tumor progression or death from any cause, whichever came first. Progression was defined as 25% increase in size of enhancing tumor or any new tumor on Gd-MRI scans, or neurologically worse, and steroids stable or increased. PFS was estimated using Kaplan-Meier method.
- Overall Survival (OS) [ Time Frame: From baseline until death (up to 4.5 years) ]
Overall survival was defined as the time from randomization to death from any cause. OS was estimated using Kaplan-Meier method.
- Percentage of Participants Who Discontinued [ Time Frame: From baseline until death (up to 4.5 years) ]
Discontinuation was defined as the percentage of participants who permanently discontinued treatment in either treatment arm. Percentage of participant with individual discontinuation reason are reported. CNS: central nervous system; CTCAE: Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events . Other reason refers to any other reason than the specified ones.
- Number of Participants With A Best Overall Response (BOR) of Complete Response (CR) and With A BOR of CR or Partial Response (PR) [ Time Frame: 4 week after radiotherapy (RT) (up to Week 4), >4 Week after RT (up to Week 8) and Month 6 ]
BOR was defined as the best response observed for a participant during assessment. Number of participants who had BOR as CR and number of participants who had BOR as CR or PR were reported. Complete response was defined as disappearance of all enhancing tumor on consecutive Gd-MRI scans at least 1 month apart, off steroids, and neurologically stable or improved. Partial response was defined as 50% reduction in size of enhancing tumor on consecutive Gd-MRI scans at least 1 month apart, steroids stable or reduced, and neurologically stable or improved.
- Percentage of Participants With Response on FLAIR Imaging [ Time Frame: At screening, Baseline, Month 6 and Therapy Discontinuation (Up to 4.5 years) ]
FLAIR lesions were determined as "stable", "progressive" or "decreased". FLAIR lesions was determined as "progressive" only if they were not be attributed to causes apart from tumor infiltration (sequelae of radiation therapy, demyelination, ischemia, infection, seizures, or other treatment effects). Percentage of participants are based on ITT population.
- Change From Baseline in European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 (EORTC QLQ - C30) at Baseline, Post-Baseline (up to Month 30) [ Time Frame: Baseline, Post-Baseline (up to Month 30) ]
The EORTC QLQ-C30 incorporates: 5 functional scales (physical, role, cognitive, emotional, and social); 9 symptom scales (fatigue, pain, nausea and vomiting, dyspnea, insomnia, appetite loss, constipation, diarrhea and financial difficulties); and a global health and quality-of-life scale. Most questions used 4 point scale (1 'Not at all' to 4 'Very much'; 2 questions used 7-point scale (1 'very poor' to 7 'Excellent'). Scores were averaged and transformed to 0-100 scale; higher score for Global Qol/functional scales=better level of functioning or a higher score for symptom scale=greater degree of symptoms. The change in global health status was determined to be the difference in values at baseline and each specific visit. The term ''baseline'' refers to the time of randomization to the maintenance phase.
- Change From Baseline for EORTC QLQ Brain Neoplasm 20 (BN20) at Baseline, Post-Baseline (up to Month 30) [ Time Frame: Baseline, Post-Baseline (up to Month 30) ]
EORTC QLQ-BN20 consisted of 20 items assessing visual disorders, motor dysfunction, communication deficit, various disease symptoms (e.g. headaches and seizures), treatment toxicities (e.g. hair loss) and future uncertainty. All of the 20 items are rated on a 4 point Likert scale from 1=not at all, 2=a little, 3=quite a bit and 4=very much, and were linearly transformed to a 0-100 scale, with higher scores indicating more severe symptoms.
- Change From Baseline for Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) at Baseline, Post-Baseline (up to Month 30) [ Time Frame: Baseline, Post-Baseline (up to Month 30) ]
The MMSE briefly measures orientation to time and place, immediate recall, short-term verbal memory, calculation, language and construct ability. Each area tested had a designated point value, the total score can range from 0 to 30, with a higher score indicating better function.
- Change From Baseline for Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) Score at Baseline, Post-Baseline (up to Month 30) [ Time Frame: Baseline, Post-Baseline (up to Month 30) ]
KPS is an 11-level score (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, and 100) which ranges between 0 (death) to 100 (complete healthy status); a higher score represents a higher ability to perform daily tasks. Deterioration in KPS was defined as decrease of 20 or more points in KPS score.
- Percentage of Participants Who Received Corticosteroid for Glioblastoma [ Time Frame: From baseline to Month 6 ]
Participants used corticosteroids for the glioblastoma condition. Corticosteroids included dexamethasone, methylprednisone, fortecortin, hydrocortisone, urbason, and prednisolone.
- Time to Treatment Failure [ Time Frame: From baseline until end of study (up to 4.5 years) ]