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Association Between Smoking, Brain Activity, Genes, and ADHD

This study has been completed.
Sponsor:
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT00915798
First Posted: June 8, 2009
Last Update Posted: January 13, 2017
The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
Collaborator:
National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Jean Gehricke, University of California, Irvine
  Purpose
The study investigated the underlying mechanisms of smoking in young adults by examining the associations between smoking, brain activity, dopamine genes, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Condition Intervention Phase
Smoking Withdrawal Nicotine ADHD Behavioral: Cigarette smoking Behavioral: Abstinence Phase 4

Study Type: Observational
Official Title: Smoking, Neurocircuitry and Genes in Adult ADHD

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by Jean Gehricke, University of California, Irvine:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Brain Activity [ Time Frame: One MRI session for nonsmokers and two MRI sessions for smokers ]
    BOLD z-score of smokers with ADHD after abstinence/smoking a cigarette, control smokers after abstinence/smoking a cigarette, nonsmokers with ADHD, and control nonsmokers. All participants performed a mathematical task in the MRI scanner. Higher BOLD z-scores indicate greater brain activation.


Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • DRD4 Genotype [ Time Frame: one time blood draw ]
  • Salivary Cotinine [ Time Frame: Once per week for 4 weeks ]
    Average level of salivary cotinine over all time points (microgram/milliliter)


Biospecimen Retention:   Samples With DNA
Blood samples for genotyping

Enrollment: 89
Study Start Date: July 2009
Study Completion Date: June 2016
Primary Completion Date: January 2016 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Groups/Cohorts Assigned Interventions
Smokers with ADHD
Smokers with ADHD participated in one overnight abstinence condition (withdrawal) and one smoking condition (smoking the first cigarette of the morning).
Behavioral: Cigarette smoking
Participants had an fMRI scan during an experimental task consisting of mathematical problems after smoking a cigarette.
Behavioral: Abstinence
Participants had an fMRI scan during an experimental task consisting of mathematical problems after smoking abstinence.
Nonsmokers with ADHD
Nonsmokers with ADHD participated in one condition.
Behavioral: Abstinence
Participants had an fMRI scan during an experimental task consisting of mathematical problems after smoking abstinence.
Control smokers
Control smokers participated in one overnight abstinence condition (withdrawal) and one smoking condition (smoking the first cigarette of the morning).
Behavioral: Cigarette smoking
Participants had an fMRI scan during an experimental task consisting of mathematical problems after smoking a cigarette.
Behavioral: Abstinence
Participants had an fMRI scan during an experimental task consisting of mathematical problems after smoking abstinence.
Control nonsmokers
Control nonsmokers participated in one condition.
Behavioral: Abstinence
Participants had an fMRI scan during an experimental task consisting of mathematical problems after smoking abstinence.

Detailed Description:
The study investigated the underlying mechanisms of smoking in young adults by examining the associations between smoking, brain activity, dopamine genes, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Four groups of young adults were recruited: (1) smokers with ADHD; (2) nonsmokers with ADHD; (3) normative control smokers; and (4) normative control nonsmokers. Smoking was assessed via questionnaires and salivary cotinine levels. Brain activity was examined via functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Each nonsmoker underwent an fMRI scan during an experimental task consisting of mathematical problems. Smokers underwent two fMRI scans during similar experimental tasks under the following two conditions: (1) after smoking a cigarette and (2) after overnight abstinence. The association between the DRD4-7 repeat allele and smoking was explored.
  Eligibility

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 45 Years   (Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Sampling Method:   Non-Probability Sample
Study Population
Commuity sample
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  1. Smokers with ADHD

    • Cigarette smoking for the last year
    • ADHD diagnosis
  2. Nonsmokers with ADHD

    • No history of regularly smoking cigarettes
    • ADHD diagnosis
  3. Normative control smokers

    • Cigarette smoking for the last year
    • No history and diagnosis of ADHD
  4. Normative control nonsmokers

    • No history of regularly smoking cigarettes
    • No history and diagnosis of ADHD

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Children under the age of 18
  • Adults above the age of 45
  • Pregnancy or planning to become pregnant
  • Any major medical illness
  • Any mental disorders that require medication (except stimulant medication)
  • Any contraindications to fMRI scanning
  • Not speaking English
  Contacts and Locations
Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT00915798


Locations
United States, California
2500 Red Hill Avenue
Santa Ana, California, United States, 92705
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of California, Irvine
National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)
Investigators
Principal Investigator: Jean-G. Gehricke, Ph.D., M.A. University of California, Irvine
  More Information

Publications:
Responsible Party: Jean Gehricke, Associate Professor, University of California, Irvine
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00915798     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: HS 2009-6740
K01DA025131 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
First Submitted: June 4, 2009
First Posted: June 8, 2009
Results First Submitted: November 2, 2016
Results First Posted: January 13, 2017
Last Update Posted: January 13, 2017
Last Verified: November 2016
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: No