Primary Outcome Measures:
- Adaptation to Klinefelter. The primary research question is to answer how adolescents and adults adapt to Klinefelter syndrome.
Secondary Outcome Measures:
- Open ended questions will also assess most difficult and best aspects of living with the condition. Follow-up research will be aimed at opportunities for enhancing adaptation.
This study aims to understand the impact of living with Klinefelter syndrome (KS) and the factors that contribute to adaptation in adolescents and adults. Individuals with KS may have variable symptoms, including hypogonadism, gynecomastia, learning disabilities, and delay and underdevelopment of secondary sexual characteristics. Perhaps the most challenging symptom of KS is infertility, which seems to be a universal symptom. It is not fully understood how males with KS conceptualize their condition, cope with their diagnosis, and adapt to living with this condition. In this study, Lazarus and Folkman s Transactional Model of Stress and Coping provides a framework for examining coping and adaptation in males with KS. A cross-sectional research design using a quantitative survey will be utilized to examine the relationships among appraisals (illness perceptions and perceived stigma), time elapsed since learning of diagnosis, coping, and adaptation. Adolescents and adults with KS will be recruited from national KS support networks via website postings, email listservs, and printed newsletter postings. Adolescents will also be recruited from a private practice. Participants will have the option to complete an online or paper version of the survey. The main outcome variable is adaptation to living with a KS diagnosis.