Early Versus Standard Postpartum Insertion of the Etonogestrel Contraceptive Implant
|Complications; Contraceptive Female Lactation||Drug: Etonogestrel contraceptive implant||Phase 4|
|Study Design:||Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Treatment
|Official Title:||Randomized Controlled Trial of Early Versus Standard Postpartum Insertion of the Etonogestrel Contraceptive Implant|
- Time to Lactogenesis Stage II [ Time Frame: 5 days postpartum ]The primary outcome, time to lactogenesis stage II in hours, was documented by maternal perception as previously described and validated in the literature. Subjects were asked, "Has your milk come in? Some women experience this as a prickly feeling or tingling in the breast, dripping from the other nipple when nursing, milk running from the baby's mouth, or gulping by the baby. " If the response was positive, subjects were then asked, "When did your milk come in?" and the response recorded to the nearest hour.
- Crematocrit of Human Milk [ Time Frame: 6 weeks postpartum ]Determination of creamatocrit is a simple method for estimating the fat & energy content of human milk based on the centrifugation of milk in a hematocrit centrifuge. The method for creamatocrit measurement was as described by Lucas et al (LucasA, GibbsJA, LysterRL, BaumJD. Creamatocrit: simple clinical technique for estimating fat concentration and energy value of human milk. BritMedJnl1978;1:1018-20)using a standard hematocrit centrifuge, standard hematocrit glass capillary tube, & vernier calipers. Measurements were performed in duplicate and the mean for each measurement used for analysis.
|Study Start Date:||January 2009|
|Study Completion Date:||May 2010|
|Primary Completion Date:||December 2009 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Early postpartum insertion
Drug: Etonogestrel contraceptive implant
Implant insertion postpartum prior to hospital discharge
Active Comparator: 2
Standard postpartum insertion
Drug: Etonogestrel contraceptive implant
Standard insertion at 4-8 weeks postpartum
This is a randomized controlled trial. Participants will be assigned with equal probability to 1 of the 2 test groups using computer-generated random numbers in blocks of varying sizes. Allocation concealment will be assured by enclosing assignments in sequentially numbered, opaque, sealed envelopes. Envelopes will be opened sequentially and only after the participant's name and study number are written on the envelope. Follow-up and data collection for participants in each group will be identical. Outcome assessors and data analysts will be blinded to treatment arm.
Inclusion/exclusion criteria will be verified and consent obtained. The patient will be notified of the results of randomization and the physician able to perform insertion will be contacted to perform the insertion. All insertions will be performed by physicians who have completed Implanon® insertion training. If the patient randomizes to standard postpartum insertion, she will be given a clinic appointment in 4-8 weeks for the insertion procedure.
Lactogenesis time will be documented by maternal perception, as described and validated by Chapman et al16. If lactogenesis has not occurred prior to hospital discharge, the patient will receive daily phone calls from study personnel until lactogenesis can be confirmed and recorded. Contact information for the patient, as well as for two friends or relatives who will know how to reach her will be obtained and verified prior to discharge. Participants will be given a reminder card for the telephone calls from the investigator and a postpartum visit appointment. Patients will be instructed to contact the investigators immediately for pain, excessive bleeding, difficulty with breastfeeding, or other concerns. Patients will be given a log book ("diary") to record breastfeeding parameters including use of supplementation, infant weights, side effects, return to sexual intercourse, contraceptive method use, and days of bleeding for the study follow-up period.
Clinical follow-up will be as follows. Postpartum telephone calls or visits to collect additional data will occur as needed for up to 5 days following hospital discharge, at 2 weeks, 4-8 weeks, and 3 and 6 months postpartum. Information obtained at these points will include: breastfeeding status and parameters, collection of record of infant weights (birth, 4-8 weeks, and 6 months), reminders to keep weekly diary, collection of diaries (6 month visit), resumption of sexual activity, use of contraceptive method, and satisfaction with contraceptive method. Patients randomized to early insertion will be asked to give a milk sample for analysis at their 4-8 week visit. Table 1 describes the contact points with the subject for collection of data. Contact will be either by telephone or at clinic visits.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00847587
|United States, Utah|
|University of Utah Hospital|
|Salt Lake City, Utah, United States, 84105|
|Principal Investigator:||Shawn E Gurtcheff, MD||University of Utah|
|Study Chair:||David K Turok, MD||University of Utah|
|Study Director:||Kirtly P Jones, MD||University of Utah|
|Study Director:||Patricia Murphy, DrPH||University of Utah|
|Study Director:||Sara E Simonsen, RN, BSN||University of Utah|