The Clinical and Economic Impact of Pharmacogenomic Testing for Tamoxifen Metabolism in Postmenopausal Women Receiving Tamoxifen for Prevention of Recurrent Breast Cancer (MHSLabCorp1)
|Breast Neoplasms Tamoxifen||Other: Poor Metabolism Status Follow Up Therapy Considerations Other: CYP2D6 Inhibiting Drugs|
|Study Design:||Observational Model: Cohort
Time Perspective: Prospective
|Official Title:||Tamoxifen Pharmacogenomics and the Prevention of Recurrent Breast Cancer|
- Determine the prevalence of different CYP450 2D6 phenotypes including poor metabolism status [ Time Frame: 14 months ]
- Determine the prevalence of concomitant drug therapy involving tamoxifen and potent CYP450 2D6 inhibitors [ Time Frame: 14 months ]
- Determine the effect of CYP450 2D6 genotyping that indicates poor metabolism status has on physician willingness to change tamoxifen therapy within 60 days of receiving test results and accompanying interpretations [ Time Frame: 60 days ]
Biospecimen Retention: Samples With DNA
|Study Start Date:||October 2007|
|Study Completion Date:||January 2009|
|Primary Completion Date:||December 2008 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Active Study Group
The active study group consists of 50 year or older postmenopausal women taking tamoxifen for the prevention of reoccurrence of breast cancer, do not meet exclusion criteria, meet all inclusion criteria, and are enrolled members for Medco clients agreeing to participate.
Other: Poor Metabolism Status Follow Up Therapy Considerations
If the patient's CYP2D6 metabolism status is 'poor' then specialist pharmacist will discuss drug therapy alternatives to tamoxifen.
Other Name: Poor MetabolismOther: CYP2D6 Inhibiting Drugs
If the patient after having a CYP2D6 test has any drugs that inhibit tamoxifen metabolism then specialist pharmacist will contact the physician for alternative drug therapies.
Tamoxifen is a non-steroidal hormonal drug with weak estrogen agonist and potent estrogen antagonist actions. The liver CYP450 metabolic enzyme systems are responsible for metabolizing tamoxifen (the pro-drug form) into its active metabolites. A secondary tamoxifen metabolite known specifically as 4-hydroxy-N-desmethyl-tamoxifen or endoxifen is recognized as the principal potent metabolite responsible for tamoxifen suppression of estrogen-dependent cell proliferation, the stimulus for breast tumor growth. Biotransformation to endoxifen is through the CYPP450 2D6 pathway; therefore, the ability of tamoxifen to effectively suppress breast cancer is jeopardized in patients with certain CYP450 2D6 genetic variants and/or those receiving drug therapy that are known to alter CYP450 2D6 function (i.e., with CYP450 2D6 inhibitors).
Four phenotype expressions classified as ultrarapid, extensive, intermediate and poor metabolizers can be discerned from genotype testing for CYP450 2D6 activity. Patients with normal metabolic activity are known as extensive metabolizers given that they possess either two (genotype = wt/wt) or one (genotype = wt/vt) functioning CYP450 2D6 gene that converts a sufficient amount of tamoxifen in to its active form. Intermediate metabolizers have at least some or very low CYP450 2D6 activity and there does not appear to be uniform consensus on the impact of this phenotype on tamoxifen drug disposition. Poor metabolizers lack any functional CYP450 2D6 activity, and therefore, they do not metabolize tamoxifen enough to produce sufficient endoxifen activity. Approximately 10% of patients (7% of Caucasians and 1-3% of other ethnic groups) are poor metabolizers with a complete absence of CYP450 2D6 activity.
The genetic variants associated with diminished or absent CYP450 2D6 activity are found on CYP450 2D6 alleles *3, *4, *5, *6 and *10. The *3, *4, *5 and *6 alleles, when present in variant form (genotype = vt/vt), account for approximately 97% of nonfunctional CYP450 2D6 variants in caucasians. Of these mutations, those in CYP450 2D6 *4 are most significant for endoxifen.
Poor metabolizer phenotype has been associated with worse relapse-free breast cancer survival and increased risk (up to three times that of intermediate metabolizer status who have some CYP450 2D6 activity) for breast cancer recurrence.
Diagnostic technology now exists to aid in determining which tamoxifen patients are potentially receiving suboptimal treatment from existing alterations in one or more of the approximately 80 alleles of the gene coding for the CPYP450 2D6 enzyme. Recognition of this phenomenon provides physicians and their patients the opportunity for considering the use of other anti-estrogen drugs such as aromatase inhibitors in women whose CYP450 2D6 phenotype puts them at risk for poor response to tamoxifen therapy.
This study will use this diagnostic technology to determine a patient's phenotype provide additional clinical information and alternative drug therapies to the patient's physician.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00830973
|United States, New Jersey|
|Franklin Lakes, New Jersey, United States, 07417|
|Principal Investigator:||Robert Epstein, MD, MS||Medco Health Solutions, Inc.|