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Prevention and Treatment of Immersion Pulmonary Edema

This study has been completed.
Divers Alert Network
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Duke University Identifier:
First received: December 26, 2008
Last updated: January 25, 2016
Last verified: January 2016
Immersion pulmonary edema (IPE) is a condition in which fluid fills the lungs during diving or swimming, particularly in cold water. Some individuals appear to be predisposed to developing IPE. DNA samples will be collected and stored, in order to compare the genetic profiles of individuals who have experienced IPE with those who have not. In a few individuals who have experienced IPE, we plan to measure the effects of cold water immersion on the blood pressure, cardiac output and the pressures in the pulmonary artery. These will be compared with similar measurements already obtained from normal individuals.

Condition Intervention Phase
Immersion Pulmonary Edema (IPE) Swimming Induced Pulmonary Edema (SIPE) Drug: Sildenafil Early Phase 1

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Prevention
Official Title: Effects of the Dive Reflex on Pulmonary Arterial and Pulmonary Artery Wedge Pressures in Subjects Who Have Experienced Immersion Pulmonary Edema

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by Duke University:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Pulmonary artery pressure during cold water immersion [ Time Frame: 1 day ]

Enrollment: 10
Study Start Date: January 2008
Study Completion Date: December 2015
Primary Completion Date: December 2015 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: Sildenafil
Measurements of pulmonary and systemic pressures during cold water immersion before and after sildenafil 50 mg orally.
Drug: Sildenafil
After measurement of the effect of cold water on cardiac output and pulmonary artery and wedge pressures, a single dose of sildenafil (50 mg) will be given orally, followed by similar hemodynamic measurements.
Other Name: Viagra

Detailed Description:
Immersion pulmonary edema (IPE) is a condition that has sudden onset in swimmers and divers, and is characterized by cough, shortness of breath, decreased blood oxygen levels, and hemoptysis. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of cold water immersion and the dive reflex on pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure in those who have already experienced IPE, as well as explore the possibility of a genetic predisposition. Healthy nonsmoking subjects who have experienced IPE will be recruited for several cold-water immersion experiments and DNA analysis. Their pulmonary arterial and pulmonary arterial wedge pressures will be measured as they undergo immersed rest and exercise trials in thermoneutral and cold water. If the pressures increase with these trials as hypothesized, the effects of sildenafil administration (a pulmonary vasodilator) will be tested during a second trial. Blood will also be drawn for DNA analysis of certain genes with possible relation to IPE. Results of these tests will be compared with those of the general population.

Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 55 Years   (Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes

Inclusion Criteria:

  • History of immersion pulmonary edema

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathy, heart valve disease
  Contacts and Locations
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Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT00815646

United States, North Carolina
Duke University Medical Center
Durham, North Carolina, United States, 27710
Sponsors and Collaborators
Duke University
Divers Alert Network
Principal Investigator: Richard Moon, MD Duke University
  More Information

Additional Information:
Publications automatically indexed to this study by Identifier (NCT Number):
Responsible Party: Duke University Identifier: NCT00815646     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: Pro00003158
Study First Received: December 26, 2008
Last Updated: January 25, 2016

Keywords provided by Duke University:
Immersion pulmonary edema
Pulmonary edema
Cold water immersion

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Pulmonary Edema
Signs and Symptoms
Lung Diseases
Respiratory Tract Diseases
Sildenafil Citrate
Vasodilator Agents
Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors
Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors
Enzyme Inhibitors
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Urological Agents processed this record on September 19, 2017