Combined Kidney and Bone Marrow Transplantation to Prevent Kidney Transplant Rejection
|Kidney Transplantation Kidney Failure, Chronic||Procedure: Kidney Transplantation Procedure: Bone marrow transplantation Biological: MEDI-507 Drug: cyclophosphamide Biological: rituximab Drug: Tacrolimus Drug: corticosteroids Radiation: thymic irradiation||Phase 2|
|Study Design:||Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
|Official Title:||Renal Allograft Tolerance Through Mixed Chimerism|
- Number of Participants Successfully Withdrawn Off of Immunosuppressant Medication for 104 Weeks [ Time Frame: 48 months post-transplant ]A participant was considered a success if they were off immunosuppressive therapy for 104 consecutive weeks leading up to study week 208 (48 months post-transplant) or study termination, whichever occurred first.
- Percentage of Participants Experiencing Acute Rejection [ Time Frame: Transplantation until study completion or participant termination (up to five years) ]The percentage of participants who experience an acute rejection. Acute rejection is defined as a biopsy with findings of Banff score of grade IA or higher. The Banff classification is as follows: grade IA is >25% of parenchyma affected and foci of moderate tubulitis; Grade IB is >25% of parenchyma affected and foci of severe tubulitis; Grade IIA is mild to moderate intimal arteritis; Grade IIB is severe intimal arteritis comprising >25% of the luminal area; Grade III is "transmural" arteritis and/or arterial fibrinoid change and necrosis of medial smooth muscle cells with accompanying lymphocytic inflammation.
- Change in Renal Function [ Time Frame: Transplantation until study completion or participant termination (up to five years) ]Change in renal function as seen in serum creatinine values from baseline until study completion or participant termination. Baseline is defined as the lowest serum creatinine collected during stabilization period or in the four weeks following the end of the stabilization period. The stabilization period is defined as four consecutive creatinine values close in value (not differing more than 0.3 mg/dL). Higher results indicate poorer kidney function, as creatinine is removed from the body by the kidneys.
- Percentage of Participants With Graft Survival Through 156 Weeks [ Time Frame: Transplantation until week 156 ]The percentage of participants with graft survival from transplantation through 156 weeks. Participants who terminated from the study prior to Week 156 without meeting the event were excluded. Graft survival is defined as the time to week 156 or graft loss. Graft loss is defined as the day on which a graft is deemed irreversibly nonfunctional and dialysis is begun, a transplantectomy is performed, or the participant is re-transplanted, whichever comes first. Six consecutive weeks of dialysis are required for the diagnosis of graft loss, though the date of graft loss will be defined as the date of first dialysis.
- Percentage of Participants Surviving Through 156 Weeks [ Time Frame: Transplantation until week 156 ]The percentage of participants who survived from transplantation through 156 weeks. Participants who terminated from the study prior to Week 156 without meeting the event were excluded.
- Time to Neutrophil Recovery Following Transplant [ Time Frame: Transplantation until study completion or participant termination (participants followed up to five years) ]Time (in days) until neutrophil recovery following transplant. Neutrophil recovery is defined as an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) > 500/mm^3 at three consecutive assessments on different days post-transplant. Time to recovery is time from transplantation until the first assessment date used to confirm the recovery.
- Time to Platelet Recovery Following Transplant [ Time Frame: Transplantation until study completion or participant termination (participants followed up to five years) ]Time (in days) until platelet recovery following transplant. Platelet recovery is defined as a platelet count >20,000 /mm^3 and where no transfusion is required. Time to recovery is time from transplantation until platelet value recovers.
- Percentage of Participants Experiencing a Clinically Significant Invasive or Resistant Opportunistic Infection [ Time Frame: Transplantation until study completion or participant termination (participants followed up to five years) ]Clinically significant invasive or resistant opportunistic infections include cytomegalovirus, herpes zoster, and candida.
|Study Start Date:||December 2008|
|Study Completion Date:||November 2014|
|Primary Completion Date:||April 2014 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Experimental: Kidney and Marrow Recipients
Combined kidney and bone marrow transplant
Procedure: Kidney Transplantation
Surgical transplantation of donor kidney
Other Name: Renal TransplantationProcedure: Bone marrow transplantation
During kidney transplant, bone marrow cells donated by the same donor as the kidney are given through a plastic tube placed in a vein in the chest, underneath the collarboneBiological: MEDI-507
0.1 mg/kg on day -2; 0.6 mg/kg on days -1,0,1
Other Names:Drug: cyclophosphamide
60 mg/kg infusion on days -5, -4
Other Name: CytoxanBiological: rituximab
375 mg/m^2 infusion on days -7, -2, 5, and 12
Other Name: RituxanDrug: Tacrolimus
0.05 mg/kg intravenously twice daily starting on day -1, adjusted to trough level of 10-15ng/ml, then tapered (if eligible) on days 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 42, and 56
Other Name: PROGRAF®Drug: corticosteroids
2 mg/kg prednisone on day 4, with an additional 500-mg pulse of methylprednisolone given on days 10, 11, and 12, and then tapered off by day 20
Other Names:Radiation: thymic irradiation
700 cGy of thymic irradiation administered in a single dose on day -1
All patients receiving an organ or tissue transplant must take special medicines known as "immunosuppressive drugs" in order to prevent the immune system from rejecting the transplant. These drugs can be very effective, but they leave the patient at an increased risk of serious infections and certain types of cancer. New methods of preventing transplant rejection are needed.
Researchers have found that transplanting both bone marrow and a kidney from the same donor can create what is called "mixed chimerism." This means that the transplant recipient has a mixture of the donor and recipient's immune systems. It is believed that this mixture of immune cells can prevent rejection of the kidney. In a small prior study, performing a kidney transplant together with a bone marrow transplant from the same donor allowed 4 of 5 patients to stop taking immunosuppressive drugs altogether, without rejecting their transplant. This clinical trial will study more patients to confirm if the technique is safe and effective.
Patients eligible for this study must be candidates for a living kidney transplant, and have an eligible donor identified. The transplant recipient and donor must both consent to participate in this study. Transplant recipients enrolled in the study will receive both kidney and bone marrow transplants from the same living donor. Prior to the transplant procedure, the transplant recipient will undergo a "conditioning regimen" that prepares their immune system for the recipient's immune (bone marrow) cells. This conditioning regimen is a combination of chemotherapy, radiation, immunosuppressive drugs and specialized medications called rituximab and MEDI-507. MEDI-507 is an investigational medication that has not been approved by the FDA. After the transplant procedure, transplant recipients will be prescribed steroids for several weeks and immunosuppressive drugs. After 2 months, the dose of the immunosuppressive drugs will slowly be decreased to zero in patients whose immune system and kidney function meet certain criteria.
Transplant recipients enrolled into the study will be hospitalized for 1 week prior to the transplant procedure. After the transplant, patients will remain in the hospital until the doctor feels they are well enough to go home. Recipients will receive approximately monthly checkups over a period of 2 years after transplant, plus a checkup at 2 ½, 3, 3 ½ , 4, and 5 years after transplant. Checkups will include physical exams, and blood and urine tests to assess immune system and kidney function. At four of these checkups, a kidney biopsy will be requested.
Transplant donors enrolled in the study will attend a screening visit, which will include a physical exam, blood tests and chest x-ray. Eligible donors will be admitted to the hospital for 3-5 days, where bone marrow will be collected prior to removal of the kidney. Transplant donors may be asked at a later date to donate additional blood samples for research purposes.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00801632
|United States, Massachusetts|
|Massachusetts General Hospital|
|Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 02114|
|Principal Investigator:||David Sachs, MD||Massacusetts General Hospital|
|Principal Investigator:||Ben Cosimi, MD||Massachusetts General Hospital|