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Salt Study: Inhibited Breathing Pattern and Sodium Inhibitors in Sodium Sensitivity of Blood Pressure

This study has been completed.
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
First Posted: December 2, 2008
Last Update Posted: December 2, 2008
The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
Information provided by:
National Institute on Aging (NIA)
The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that blood pressure sensitivity to high sodium intake in healthy humans is characterized by increased urinary excretion of two endogenous sodium pump inhibitors, marinobufagenin (MBG), and ouabain-like compound (OLC). The study also tests the hypothesis that women who breathe slowly and have high resting end tidal CO2 at rest are more likely to have low plasma renin activity and sodium sensitivity of blood pressure than those who breathe more rapidly and maintain lower end tidal CO2.


Study Type: Observational
Study Design: Observational Model: Cohort
Time Perspective: Prospective
Official Title: Inhibited Breathing Pattern and Sodium Inhibitors in Sodium Sensitivity of Blood Pressure

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by National Institute on Aging (NIA):

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • The sodium loading procedures will be identical in both experiments, except that 24-hr urine collection will be collected all 12 days in experiment one, but only on the last two days of each sodium diet in experiment two. [ Time Frame: Group 1- daily; Group 2 - days 6 & 12 ]

Enrollment: 96
Study Start Date: March 2003
Study Completion Date: December 2006
Primary Completion Date: December 2006 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Eight men and eight women to define the time course of changes in MBG \ and OLC accompanying sodium loading
32 additional women to determine whether breathing pattern is predictive of sodium sensitivity in that gender. Women are being studied in the second experiment because they, but not men, have been shown to have an association of breathing pattern with high perceived stress11 and an association of high resting end tidal CO2 with high resting blood pressure.

Detailed Description:

The experiments will involve a common procedure of sodium restriction followed by sodium loading of normotensive (having normal blood pressure) humans. However, the first experiment will involve continuous urine collection throughout the experimental period in a smaller group of men and women, while the second experiment will involve urine collection only at the end of each diet period in a larger group of normotensive women. If, as expected, experiment one shows that sodium loading produces MBG increases that are sustained throughout the sodium loading period, then experiment two will also be able to address a third issue: that is whether MBG or OLC response to sodium loading is specific to breathing pattern or sodium sensitivity. It is hypothesized that women with inhibited breathing who are sodium sensitive will show higher levels of MBG, even before sodium loading, but also following sodium loading.

Each participant will be seen at the Clinical Research Unit for a screening visit and on days 6 and 12, and consume a low sodium diet for 6 days followed by a high sodium diet for 6 days. Research staff will meet with the participant at regular intervals for meal provision and transfer of 24-hr urine collections (if applicable). Respiration and blood pressure will be measured on the last day of each sodium diet.


Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   40 Years to 70 Years   (Adult, Senior)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Sampling Method:   Non-Probability Sample
Study Population

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Age 40-70
  • Caucasian
  • Nonsmoking
  • Free of respiratory, cardiac, liver and kidney disease, and diabetes
  • Resting systolic blood pressure less than or equal to 139 mmHg AND resting diastolic blood pressure of less than or equal to 89 mmHg15
  • BMI less than or equal to 30
  • Negative pregnancy test for female participants whose last menstrual period was less than one year prior to study enrollment
  • For Group 1, willing to provide 24-hr urine samples for 12 consecutive days
  • For Group 2, women on combination oral contraceptives (those containing estrogen and progesterone) will be eligible for the study, with equal numbers in the "fast" and "slow" breathing groups
  • For Group 2, in premenopausal women, regular menstrual cycles for at least 6 months prior to study entry

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Presence of respiratory, cardiac, liver or kidney disease; diabetes, or hypertension
  • Use of medications which can affect respiratory rate, such as major tranquilizers, narcotics, or benzodiazepines
  • Diuretic or steroid use
  • Cigarette smoking within the past 12 months
  • BMI > 30 kg/m2
  • Postmenopausal women on hormone replacement therapy
  • Pregnancy or lactation in the last 12 months
  • In premenopausal women, irregular menstrual cycles in the 6 months prior to study entry
  • For Group 2, respiratory rate in the middle third of the distribution of breathing frequency in BLSA
  • For Group 2, pre-menopausal women not taking oral contraceptives who are in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle
  Contacts and Locations
Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT00800228

United States, Maryland
NIA Clinical Research Unit
Baltimore, Maryland, United States, 21225
Sponsors and Collaborators
National Institute on Aging (NIA)
Principal Investigator: David Anderson, PhD National Institute on Aging (NIA)
  More Information

Responsible Party: David Anderson, Ph.D., National Institute on Aging, NIH
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00800228     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: AG0110
First Submitted: November 30, 2008
First Posted: December 2, 2008
Last Update Posted: December 2, 2008
Last Verified: November 2008

Keywords provided by National Institute on Aging (NIA):
blood pressure

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Respiratory Aspiration
Respiration Disorders
Respiratory Tract Diseases
Pathologic Processes