The Effects of Gum Chewing on Math Scores in Adolescents
|ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00792116|
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : November 17, 2008
Results First Posted : November 17, 2008
Last Update Posted : November 20, 2008
Context: Gum chewing has been shown to increase cognitive functioning. With the rise in standardized testing of school-age children and the concurrent attempts to improve their scores, finding simple and inexpensive methods to bolster performance is needed.
Objective: To examine the effects of gum chewing on standardized test scores and class grades in a group of 8th grade math students.
Design: Math classes were randomized to a gum chewing (GC) condition that provided students with gum during class and testing, or a control condition with no gum (NG) provided during class and testing. This study was conducted during the Spring 2008 school semester.
Setting: A charter school in Houston, TX.
Participants: All students enrolled in eighth grade math at the charter school were approached for recruitment in this study. A total of 108 (94%) students participated. Participants were between the ages of 13 and 16.
Main Outcome Measures: The Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS), the Woodcock Johnson III Tests of Achievement (WJ-III), and math class grades were used to assess any differences in academic performance between the GC and NGC conditions. For purposes of this study, only the math sections of the WJ-III and TAKS, which are both standardized tests, were assessed.
Our primary hypothesis was that adolescents in a gum chewing (GC) condition would have significantly improved standardized test scores and math grades compared to adolescents in a non-gum chewing (NG) control condition.
|Condition or disease||Intervention/treatment||Phase|
|Academic Achievement in Math||Behavioral: Gum Chewing||Not Applicable|
|Study Type :||Interventional (Clinical Trial)|
|Actual Enrollment :||108 participants|
|Intervention Model:||Parallel Assignment|
|Masking:||Single (Outcomes Assessor)|
|Official Title:||The Effects of Gum Chewing on Standardized Math Scores in Adolescents|
|Study Start Date :||February 2008|
|Actual Primary Completion Date :||May 2008|
|Actual Study Completion Date :||May 2008|
|Experimental: Gum Chewing||
Behavioral: Gum Chewing
|No Intervention: Non-gum chewing|
- Math Grades [ Time Frame: baseline (the beginning of a school semester ) ]
- Math Scores on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) [ Time Frame: the beginning of a school semester ]
- Math Grades [ Time Frame: 14 week (end of the semester) ]
- Math Scores on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS). [ Time Frame: 14 weeks (end of the semester) ]
- State Anxiety Scores on the State Trait Anxiety Index for Children (STAIC). [ Time Frame: the beginning of a school semester and 14 weeks later (the end of a school semester) ]
- Math Scores on the Woodcock Johnson III Tests of Achievement (WJ-III) [ Time Frame: the beginning of a school semester and 14 weeks later (the end of a school semester) ]
- Scores on the Math Anxiety Rating Scale for Adolescents (MARS-A) [ Time Frame: the beginning of a school semester and 14 weeks later (the end of a school semester) ]