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Digital Ischemic Lesions in Scleroderma Treated With Oral Treprostinil Diethanolamine (DISTOL-1)

This study has been completed.
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
United Therapeutics Identifier:
First received: October 17, 2008
Last updated: January 31, 2014
Last verified: January 2014
This study will evaluate the effect of treprostinil diethanolamine (UT-15C) sustained release tablets(compared to placebo) on digital ulcers in patients with scleroderma. Treprostinil diethanolamine is an analog of prostacyclin. Prostacyclin is a naturally occuring substance produced by the cells of blood vessels that inhibits platelet aggregation, induces vasodilation, and suppresses smooth muscle proliferation. Improvement in blood flow in lower limbs and fingers would be anticipated to result in a reduction in ischemic pain, Raynaud's phenomenon and promote healing of digital ulcers and other ischemic wounds.

Condition Intervention Phase
Systemic Sclerosis
Drug: treprostinil diethanolamine
Drug: placebo
Phase 2

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Double Blind (Participant, Investigator)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: DISTOL-1: Digital Ischemic Lesions in Scleroderma Treated With Oral Treprostinil Diethanolamine: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Multicenter Study

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by United Therapeutics:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Net Ulcer Burden [ Time Frame: Week 20 ]
    Net ulcer burden was defined as the number of "new" or "active" digital ulcers (DU), plus the number of "indeterminate" DUs at that assessment that have previously been classified as either "active" or "new" at any earlier assessment during the study. A DU was defined as an area with visually discernable depth and a loss of continuity of epithelial coverage, which could be denuded or covered by a scab or necrotic tissue. If denuded, the DU was pronounced "active." If denudation could not be judged because of the presence of scab or necrotic tissue, DU presenting with features, including underlying pain, based on Investigator clinical judgment to be consistent with loss of epithelialization, epidermis, or dermis, and requiring treatment were designated as "active." Otherwise, the DU was pronounced "indeterminate." Only DUs distal to the proximal interphalangeal joints, volar to the equator of the finger, not localized in creases and vascular in origin were assessed.

Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Digital Ulcer Pain VAS [ Time Frame: Week 20 ]
    Digital ulcer pain was rated on a 100-mm VAS on which subjects were asked to rate their average overall hand pain during the last week. The recorded value was divided by 10, with values ranging from 0.0 (no pain) to 10.0 (unbearable pain), expressed to one decimal.

  • Patient Global Assessment of Digital Ulcer Severity VAS [ Time Frame: Week 20 ]

    Patients rated their global impression of digital ulcer severity on a 15-cm VAS from scaled 0 (no disease activity) to 100 (very severe disease).

    The term "severity" was used to measure the extent of disease activity and associated disability or discomfort the patient experienced during the indicated time period.

  • Physician Global Assessment of Digital Ulcer Severity VAS [ Time Frame: Week 20 ]

    Physicians rated their global impression of digital ulcer severity on a 15-cm VAS from scaled 0 (no disease activity) to 100 (very severe disease).

    The term "severity" was used to measure the extent of disease activity and associated disability or discomfort the patient experienced during the indicated time period.

  • Cochin Hand Function Scale (CHFS) [ Time Frame: Week 20 ]
    The CHFS has been demonstrated as a reliable and valid assessment of hand function at the activity level in persons with SSc. It is comprised of 18 questions with possible integer responses of 0 (without difficulty) to 5 (impossible). The CHFS Score is simply the sum of all 18 questions, divided by the number of questions actually answered, multiplied by 18. At least 10 of the 18 questions must have been answered in order for CHFS to be calculated. Therefore, CHFS Score values can range from 0 (least limitation) to 90 (most limitation). A higher score indicates more difficulty in hand function or greater disability.

  • Scleroderma Health Assessment Questionnaire (SHAQ) [ Time Frame: Week 20 ]
    The SHAQ is a patient self-administered instrument which has been previously validated in SSc and demonstrates meaningful clinical changes in the course of the disease over time. It is comprised of a 20 question instrument pertaining to specific activities with possible integer responses of 0 (without any difficulty) to 3 (unable to do), and five additional scleroderma-specific visual analog scale (VAS) domains (Overall Disease Activity, Raynaud's Phenomenon, Finger Ulcers, Breathing, and Intestinal Problems) with possible values ranging from 0.0 to 15.0. The 20 questions are divided into eight domains. A mean score is calculated for each domain ranging from 0 to 3. A composite HAQ DI score is calculated by dividing the summed domain scores by the number of domains answered. The composite score is reported, falling between 0 and 3 on an ordinal scale. The scores are interpreted as 0 (no impairment in function) to 3 (maximal impairment of function).

  • Modified Rodnan Skin Score (mRSS) [ Time Frame: Week 20 ]
    The skin thickening was assessed by the Investigator in 17 body areas: fingers, hands, forearms, arms, feet, legs, and thighs (bilaterally) and face, chest, and abdomen (singly). Each area was scored 0-3; 0 representing normal skin and 3 being severe thickening. The mRSS was the sum of the individual skin assessment scores: possible range of 0-51; 0 (no thickening) to 51 (severe thickening in all 17 areas) .

  • Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire [ Time Frame: Week 20 ]
    The SF-MPQ assessment has three component scores: the pain rating index (PRI), a pain visual analogue numerical scale (Pain VAS) and the present pain intensity (PPI). PRI is calculated by summing the responses (0=None to 3=Severe) to the 15 questions describing pain during the previous week and rated on an intensity scale as 0= none, 1= mild, 2= moderate or 3= severe and has possible values ranging from 0 to 45. The Pain VAS is a 100 mm VAS on which subjects were asked to rate pain during the previous week with values ranging from no pain (0.0) to worst possible pain (10.0). The PPI rated pain on a 6-point category scale from 0 (no pain) to 5 (excruciating pain).

  • Patient Impression of Change (PIC) Questionnaire [ Time Frame: Week 20 ]
    The PIC questionnaire consisted of three Likert items that asked the subject to rate changes in their digital ulcer, Raynaud's phenomenon and disease status since their last visit on a seven-level scale (very much improved, much improved, somewhat improved, same, somewhat worse, much worse and very much worse).

  • Short Form 36 [ Time Frame: Week 20 ]
    Change in patient quality of life was measured by the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), a self-administered questionnaire covering eight areas: physical function, physical role, bodily pain, general health, vitality, social function, emotional role, and mental health. For each area, the score range from 0 (poorer health status) to 100 (better health status). The SF-36 is one of the most widely used and validated instruments to assess quality of life in patients with systemic illnesses. A decrease (negative change) in a domain score corresponds to deterioration.

  • Time to Ulcer Healing- Percentage of Subjects With Complete Healing [ Time Frame: Week 20 ]
    A subject was counted as having all ulcers completely healed at the earliest assessment for which all ulcers are designated as "healed" and no new ulcers appeared for the remainder of the trial.

  • Time to Ulcer Healing [ Time Frame: Week 20 ]
    A subject was counted as having all ulcers completely healed at the earliest assessment for which all ulcers are designated as "healed" and no new ulcers appeared for the remainder of the trial. The time to complete healing of all ulcers were calculated as the number of days from randomization to the date of these respective assessments, provided that complete healing was achieved during the study.

Enrollment: 148
Study Start Date: May 2009
Study Completion Date: July 2011
Primary Completion Date: March 2011 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: treprostinil diethanolamine
Treprostinil diethanolamine sustained release tablet initiated at 0.25 mg BID and titrated up to a maximum dose of 16 mg BID or the individual's maximum tolerated dose.
Drug: treprostinil diethanolamine
oral sustained release tablet. Maximum tolerable dose not exceeding 16 mg twice daily (BID)
Placebo Comparator: placebo (sugar pill)
Matching placebo sustained release tablet initiated at 0.25 mg BID and titrated up to a maximum dose of 16 mg BID or the individual's maximum tolerated dose.
Drug: placebo


Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Senior)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Subject gave voluntary written informed consent to participate in the study
  • Diagnosis of systemic sclerosis (SSc) as defined by American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria
  • Males and females age greater than 18 years at Screening
  • Presence of at least one active digital ulcer (met protocol defined qualifications for active digital ulcer) at Baseline
  • Females of childbearing potential willing to use a reliable form of medically acceptable contraception and have a negative pregnancy test at Screening and Baseline
  • Able to communicate effectively with study personnel and willing to comply with protocol requirements

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Diagnosis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH)
  • Body weight less than 40 kg at Screening and confirmed at Baseline
  • History of postural hypotension, unexplained syncope, a blood pressure that is less than 90 mmHg systolic or 50 mmHg diastolic at Screening and Baseline
  • Hemoglobin concentration less than 75% of the lower limit of the normal range at Screening
  • Moderate to severe hepatic impairment, i.e., Child-Pugh Class B or C, or ALT greater than three times upper limit of normal
  • Intractable diarrhea, or severe malabsorption, defined as greater than 15% unintentional loss of body weight in the last 6 months prior to Screening; any severe organ failure (e.g., lung, kidney), bleeding diathesis or platelet disorder, or any life-threatening condition
  • Pregnant or breast-feeding
  • Simultaneously fulfilled criteria for a second connective tissue disease including systemic lupus erythermatosus, rheumatoid arthritis or inflammatory myopathy
  • Sympathectomy of the upper limb, involving the hand, performed within 12 months of Baseline. Sympathectomy performed on the non-target limb (hand not presenting with qualifying ulcers) or which did not include the hand, performed within 6 months of Baseline
  • Receipt of prostanoid treatment (epoprostenol, treprostinil sodium, or other prostacyclin analog) within the previous 3 months of Baseline for conditions including Raynaud's phenomenon, rest pain and / or digital ulcers
  • Required systemic antibiotics for infected digital ulcers within 2 weeks of Screening
  • Local injection of botulinum toxin in an affected finger within 1 month prior to Baseline
  • Treatment with endothelin receptor antagonists within 1 month prior to Baseline
  • Patients on phosphodiasterase inhibitors, such as sildenafil or tadalafil, who have received treatment for less than 6 months prior to Baseline (unless for intermittent treatment of male erectile dysfunction)
  • Treatment with statin within 1 month prior to Screening, unless for management of hyperlipidemia
  • Received an investigational product within 1 month preceding Screening
  • Known hypersensitivity to treprostinil diethanolamine or any of the excipients
  • Tobacco or nicotine use at any level within the past 6 months prior to Screening
  • Any condition or laboratory that in the opinion of the investigator might interfere with subject's participation, pose an additional risk for the subject, could prevent understanding the objectives, nature or consequences of the trial, compliance with the protocol, adherence to therapy, or that would interfere with interpretation of study assessments
  Contacts and Locations
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Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT00775463

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Sponsors and Collaborators
United Therapeutics
Principal Investigator: James Seibold, MD Scleroderma Research Consultants LLC, Avon, CT,
  More Information

Responsible Party: United Therapeutics Identifier: NCT00775463     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: TDE-DU-201
Study First Received: October 17, 2008
Results First Received: January 31, 2014
Last Updated: January 31, 2014

Keywords provided by United Therapeutics:
Scleroderma, Diffuse
Scleroderma, Limited
Scleroderma, Systemic

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Scleroderma, Systemic
Scleroderma, Diffuse
Scleroderma, Localized
Connective Tissue Diseases
Skin Diseases
Antihypertensive Agents processed this record on April 24, 2017