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Efficacy and Safety of Pioglitazone in Treating Subjects With Vascular Complications Associated With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. (SPLENDOR)

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00770835
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : October 10, 2008
Last Update Posted : July 12, 2011
Information provided by:

Brief Summary:
The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacy of pioglitazone compared to glibenclamide, once daily (QD), taken together with metformin and lifestyle modification in type 2 diabetic subjects with cardiovascular disease.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Diabetes Mellitus Drug: Pioglitazone and Metformin Drug: Glibenclamide and Metformin Phase 4

Detailed Description:

Diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases worldwide, affecting nearly 200 million people, almost all suffering from Type 2 Diabetes. It is the fourth leading cause of death in developed countries due to the negative impact of the disease on the cardiovascular system. Treatment, aimed to the reduction of this intrinsic cardiovascular risk, is based on tight control of glucose and all coexisting metabolic abnormalities as well as of biomarkers of inflammation and atherogenesis.

Macrovascular complications account for the vast majority of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients, and there is growing evidence that pathophysiologic mechanisms other than hyperglycemia are responsible. The condition of the vascular endothelium in particular has been shown to effect the health and disease of the cardiovascular system.

The number and function of endothelial progenitor cells correlate inversely with cardiovascular risk factors and may be a surrogate biologic marker for vascular function and cumulative cardiovascular risk.

Pioglitazone is an orally active thiazolidinedione derivative. It is a ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma activation that alters transcription of various genes regulating carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 39 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Quadruple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Effects of Pioglitazone on Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Type 2 Diabetic Patients With Vascular Complications - The SPLENDOR Study.
Study Start Date : March 2009
Actual Primary Completion Date : May 2011
Actual Study Completion Date : May 2011

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Pioglitazone and Metformin QD
(along with lifestyle modification)
Drug: Pioglitazone and Metformin
Pioglitazone 30 mg, tablets, orally, once daily, metformin stable dose and lifestyle modification for up to 24 weeks.
Other Names:
  • ACTOS®
  • AD-4833

Active Comparator: Glibenclamide and Metformin QD
(along with lifestyle modification)
Drug: Glibenclamide and Metformin
Glibenclamide 10 mg, tablets, orally, once daily and metformin stable dose and lifestyle modification for up to 24 weeks.
Other Names:
  • Diabeta
  • Glynase
  • Micronase
  • Daonil
  • Semi-Daonil
  • Euglucon

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Increase from Baseline in the number of Endothelial Progenitor Cells (CD34+KDR+). [ Time Frame: Baseline and Final Visit. ]

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Change from Baseline in Circulating Progenitor Cells Integrated Markers of cardiovascular risk (CD34+). [ Time Frame: Baseline and Weeks 12 and 24. ]
  2. Change from Baseline in Flow Mediated Dilation Integrated Markers of cardiovascular risk. [ Time Frame: Baseline and Final Visit. ]
  3. Modulation of Endothelial Progenitor Cell recruitment (vascular endothelial growth factor, erythropoietin and stromal cell-derived factor-1). [ Time Frame: Weeks: 4, 12 and 24. ]
  4. Measure of Glucose Control (glycosylated hemoglobin and fasting plasma glucose). [ Time Frame: Weeks: 4, 12 and 24. ]
  5. Measure of Lipid Parameters (total lipids, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoprotein B and apolipoprotein A1). [ Time Frame: Weeks: 4, 12 and 24. ]
  6. Change from Baseline in lipid parameters (free fatty acids and oxidized low-density lipoprotein). [ Time Frame: Baseline and Weeks 12 and 24. ]
  7. Change from Baseline in insulin sensitivity (insulin indexes by 2 hour oral glucose tolerance test with glucose, insulin and C-peptide estimation). [ Time Frame: Baseline and Final Visit. ]
  8. Change from Baseline in Inflammation Markers (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, IL-6, vascular adhesion molecules (E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha). [ Time Frame: Baseline and Weeks 12 and 24. ]
  9. Change from Baseline in Adipokines (adiponectin). [ Time Frame: Baseline and Weeks 12 and 24. ]
  10. Change from Baseline in Oxidative Stress (maleic dialdehyde, ferric reducing antioxidant power and lipid hydroperoxide. [ Time Frame: Baseline and Weeks 12 and 24. ]
  11. Urinary albumin excretion. [ Time Frame: Weeks: 12 and 24. ]

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   40 Years to 70 Years   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Females must be non-pregnant, non-lactating and post-menopausal.
  • A glycosylated hemoglobin level greater than 7.5% and less than 10%.
  • Has an age of onset of Type 2 Diabetes greater than 35 years of age.
  • Is on metformin monotherapy up to the maximum tolerated daily dose.
  • Has a normal or only slightly impaired renal function (a modification of diet in renal disease estimated glomerular filtration rate greater than 60 ml/min/1.73m2.
  • Antihypertensives, statins and any other hypolipidemic medications have been initiated at least three months prior to enrollment; no dose modifications are allowed during the study.
  • Has one or more cardiovascular comorbidities as follows:

    • stable angina pectoris
    • previous (greater than three months) transient ischemic attack, cerebrovascular accident or carotid atherosclerosis as assessed by bilateral carotid artery ultrasonography
    • peripheral vascular complications documented by a history of claudication or rest pain, ultrasonography or angiography.
  • and/or two or more of the following major cardiovascular risk factors:

    • hypertension (blood pressure >130/80 mmHg or treatment)
    • dyslipidemia (low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol >100 mg/dl or treatment and/or high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol <40 mg/dl in men and <45 mg/dl in women or treatment)
    • smoking (>10 cigarettes/day)

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Has Type 1 Diabetes.
  • Is on insulin therapy.
  • Is severely obese defined as a body mass index greater than or equal to 40mg/m2
  • Has diabetic retinopathy.
  • Has evidence of hepatic dysfunction including liver transaminase greater than three times the upper limit of normal.
  • Is unable to remain on a stable dose of the following class of medications 30 days prior to randomization and throughout the six months of the study:

    • antihypertensives
    • statins
    • other hypolipidemic and antiplatelet drugs
  • Has a history of alcohol or other drug abuse.
  • Has had a new diagnosis of cancer or recurrent cancer within five years of screening.
  • Has a need for chronic (greater than two weeks) immunosuppressive therapy.
  • Has had heart failure based on the New York Heart Association Functional Class I through IV.
  • Is required to take or intends to continue taking any disallowed medication, any prescription medication, herbal treatment or over-the counter medication that may interfere with evaluation of the study medication, including:

    • Other antidiabetic drugs (except metformin)
    • Fibrates
    • Rifampicin
    • Glibenclamide interacting drugs, including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents
    • Other drugs that are highly protein bound, including:

      • sulphonamides
      • chloramphenicol
      • probenecid
      • monoamine oxidase inhibitors
      • fluoroquinolones antibiotics
      • oral miconazole
  • Has participated in another clinical study within the past three months.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT00770835

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Padova, Italy
Pisa, Italy
Sponsors and Collaborators
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Study Director: Medical Director Takeda
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Responsible Party: Medical Director, Takeda Italia Farmaceutici S.p.A.
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00770835    
Other Study ID Numbers: IT-PIO-109
2007-003077-44 ( EudraCT Number )
U1111-1114-3045 ( Registry Identifier: WHO )
First Posted: October 10, 2008    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: July 12, 2011
Last Verified: July 2011
Keywords provided by Takeda:
Glucose Metabolism Disorder
Dysmetabolic Syndrome
Type II Diabetes
Diabetes Mellitus, Lipoatrophic
Drug Therapy
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Diabetes Mellitus
Glucose Metabolism Disorders
Metabolic Diseases
Endocrine System Diseases
Hypoglycemic Agents
Physiological Effects of Drugs