Internet Intervention for Childhood Encopresis
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|ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00767403|
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : October 7, 2008
Last Update Posted : April 3, 2012
|Condition or disease||Intervention/treatment||Phase|
|Encopresis||Behavioral: Internet Intervention + Stepped Care Behavioral: Internet Intervention Behavioral: Patient Education Website||Not Applicable|
It is estimated that between 1.5% and 7.5% of children experience encopresis. In most children, encopresis is a complication of long-standing constipation. Encopresis is defined as the repeated passage of feces in inappropriate places at least once a month, for three months, and not induced through substances or due to a general medical condition. Typically, treatment consists of medical management alone, which focuses on diet and/or laxative therapy and has a relatively low success rate. A combination of specialized medical and behavioral interventions for encopresis (Enhanced Toilet Training) has been found to have high success rates. Unfortunately, it is not readily available because of a lack of trained professionals to deliver the treatment and the amount of time and costs spent in delivering this treatment. Internet interventions, however, may lower some of the barriers associated with traditional face-to-face treatments by removing the inconvenience of scheduling appointments, missing work/school, and traveling to and from a clinician's office. This study will evaluate whether an Internet intervention is more effective than patient education in treating pediatric encopresis. This study will also evaluate whether stepped care support is additive to the effectiveness of the Internet intervention. Stepped care will involve adding personal e-mail and phone support to help families overcome obstacles to using and implementing the intervention.
Participants are randomized to receive a patient education website, the Internet intervention alone, or the Internet intervention plus stepped care. The intervention period lasts for 6 weeks. During the intervention period, subjects assigned to the patient education website will be given content addressing treatment of encopresis. Those assigned to use the Internet intervention will review interactive tutorials tailored to the user's difficulties. The stepped care group will receive the Internet intervention as well as additional support if they fail to reach specific intervention milestones. All families will complete assessment questionnaires and daily diaries of the children's symptoms and bowel behaviors for one week at baseline, following the intervention period, and at 6 and 12 months follow-up.
|Study Type :||Interventional (Clinical Trial)|
|Actual Enrollment :||290 participants|
|Intervention Model:||Factorial Assignment|
|Masking:||None (Open Label)|
|Official Title:||An Internet Intervention for Childhood Constipation and Encopresis|
|Study Start Date :||January 2010|
|Actual Primary Completion Date :||March 2012|
|Actual Study Completion Date :||March 2012|
Behavioral: Internet Intervention + Stepped Care
Participants will spend about 1 hour each week for 6 weeks using the Internet Intervention. In the first week, users will complete tutorials covering the three main components of treatment: 1) anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology of digestion; 2) education on clean-out and laxative treatments; and 3) behavioral treatment for encopresis. In subsequent weeks, users will complete weekly "follow-ups," where they answer a series of questions about their progress and needs. The program then assigns additional intervention modules based on the difficulties the participants endorses. The 22 modules target a variety of issues including fears of toilet use; social isolation; administering, adjusting, and tapering laxatives; diet; hygiene; and preventing relapses. In addition to automatic emails, participants in this group will also receive additional support based on whether they complete specific intervention milestones.
|Active Comparator: 2||
Behavioral: Internet Intervention
As described in Arm 1 above, participants will spend about 1 hour each week for 6 weeks using the Internet intervention. In the first week, users will complete tutorials covering the three main components of treatment: 1) anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology of digestion; 2) education on clean-out and laxative treatments; and 3) behavioral treatment for encopresis. In subsequent weeks, users will complete weekly "follow-ups," where they answer a series of questions about their progress and needs. The program will then assign additional intervention modules based on the difficulties the participant endorses. The 22 modules target a variety of issues including fears of toilet use; social isolation; administering, adjusting, and tapering laxatives; diet; hygiene; and preventing relapses.
|Active Comparator: 3||
Behavioral: Patient Education Website
Participants will be given access to a relevant patient education website. It will contain material on managing and treating the behaviors and symptoms of childhood encopresis.
- Primary encopretic symptoms (as defined by): 1. Number of episodes of fecal soiling 2. Number of bowel movements in the toilet 3. Increased trips to the bathroom (both parent and self-prompted) [ Time Frame: Baseline, 6 weeks, 6 months, 1 year ]
- Behavior change around encopresis (as measured by): 1. Appropriate clean-out 2. Appropriate laxative use 3. Appropriate rectus abdominis straining 4. Toileting routine [ Time Frame: Baseline, 6 weeks, 6 months, 1 year ]
- Secondary encopretic symptoms (as defined by): 1. Appropriate bowel movement consistency 2. Reduced bowel-specific difficulties [ Time Frame: Baseline, 6 weeks, 6 months, 1 year ]
- Frequency and Severity of perianal pain [ Time Frame: Baseline, 6 weeks, 6 months, 1 year ]
- Costs (as measured by): 1. Time spent managing symptoms 2. Doctor visits 3. Medication usage 4. Missed school/work days 5. Diapers used 6. Therapist time in stepped-care component 7. Expenses associated with building and maintaining web program [ Time Frame: Baseline, 6 weeks, 6 months, 1 year ]
- Website Utilization (as measured by): 1. Time spent on website 2. Number of log-ins 3. Number of completed website Modules and Follow-Ups [ Time Frame: Throughout Intervention (from Baseline to 1 year) ]
To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT00767403
|United States, Virginia|
|University of Virginia Health System, Department of Psychiatry and Neurobehavioral Sciences, Behavioral Health and Technology|
|Charlottesville, Virginia, United States, 22903|
|Principal Investigator:||Lee M Ritterband, PhD||University of Virginia Health Systems|