An Efficacy Study of Teriflunomide in Participants With Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis (TOWER)

This study has been completed.
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Sanofi
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT00751881
First received: May 7, 2008
Last updated: May 27, 2016
Last verified: May 2016
  Purpose

The primary objective of the study was to assess the effect of two doses of teriflunomide, in comparison to placebo, on the frequency of multiple sclerosis (MS) relapses in participants with relapsing MS.

Key secondary objective was to assess the effect of the two doses of teriflunomide, in comparison to placebo, on disability progression.

Other secondary objectives were:

  • To assess the effect of the two doses of teriflunomide in comparison to placebo on:

    • Fatigue;
    • Health-related quality of life, a measure of the impact of the participant's health on his or her overall well being.
  • To evaluate the safety and tolerability of teriflunomide.

Condition Intervention Phase
Multiple Sclerosis
Drug: Placebo
Drug: Teriflunomide
Phase 3

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Multi-center Double-blind Parallel-group Placebo-controlled Study of the Efficacy and Safety of Teriflunomide in Patients With Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by Sanofi:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Core Treatment Period: Annualized Relapse Rate (ARR): Poisson Regression Estimate [ Time Frame: Core treatment period between 48 - 152 weeks depending on time of enrollment ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]

    ARR is obtained from the total number of confirmed relapses that occurred during the treatment period divided by the sum of treatment durations.

    Each episode of relapse - appearance, or worsening of a clinical symptom that was stable for at least 30 days, that persisted for a minimum of 24 hours in the absence of fever - was to be confirmed by an increase in Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score or Functional System scores.

    To account for the different treatment durations among participants, a Poisson regression model with robust error variance was used (total number of confirmed relapses as response variable; log-transformed treatment duration as "offset" variable; treatment group, region of enrollment and baseline EDSS stratum as covariates).



Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Core Treatment Period: Time to Disability Progression [ Time Frame: Core treatment period between 48 - 152 weeks depending on time of enrollment ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]

    Probability of disability progression at 24, 48, 108 and 132 weeks was estimated using Kaplan-Meier method on the time to disability progression defined as the time from randomization to first 12-week sustained disability progression [i.e. increase from baseline of at least 1 point in EDSS score (at least 0.5 point for participants with baseline EDSS score >5.5) that persisted for at least 12 weeks].

    Participants free of disability progression (no disability progression observed on treatment) were censored at the date of the last on-treatment EDSS evaluation.

    Kaplan-Meier method consists in computing probabilities of non occurrence of event at any observed time of event and multiplying successive probabilities for time ≤t by any earlier computed probabilities to estimate the probability of being event-free for the amount of time t. Probability of event at time t is 1 minus the probability of being event-free for the amount of time t.


  • Core Treatment Period: Time Without Relapse [ Time Frame: Core treatment period between 48 - 152 weeks depending on time of enrollment ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]

    Probability of no relapse at 24, 48, 108 and 132 weeks was estimated using Kaplan-Meier method on the time to relapse defined as the time from randomization to first EDSS confirmed relapse.

    Participants free of confirmed relapse (no EDSS confirmed relapse observed on treatment) were censored at the date of the last study drug intake.


  • Core Treatment Period: Change From Baseline to Week 48 in EDSS Total Score [ Time Frame: Baseline (before randomization), Week 12, Week 24, Week 36 and Week 48 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]

    EDSS is an ordinal scale in half-point increments that qualifies disability in participants with MS. It consists of 8 ordinal rating scales assessing 7 functional systems (visual, brainstem, pyramidal, cerebellar, sensory, bowel/bladder and cerebral) as well as ambulation.

    EDSS total score ranges from 0 (normal neurological examination) to 10 (death due to MS).

    Baseline adjusted least-squares means at Week 48 were estimated using a Mixed-effect model with repeated measures (MMRM) on EDSS score data (treatment group, region of enrollment, baseline EDSS stratum, visit, treatment-by-visit interaction, baseline value, and baseline-by-visit interaction as factors). All the timepoints from randomization up to Week 48 were included in the model.


  • Core Treatment Period: Change From Baseline to Week 48 in Fatigue Impact Scale (FIS) Total Score [ Time Frame: Baseline (before randomization), Week 12, Week 24 and Week 48 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]

    FIS is a participants-reported scale that qualifies the impact of fatigue on daily life in participants with MS. It consists of 40 statements that measure fatigue in 3 areas; physical, cognitive, and social.

    FIS total score ranges from 0 (no problem) to 160 (extreme problem).

    Baseline adjusted least-squares means at week 48 were estimated using a Mixed-effect model with repeated measures (MMRM) on FIS total score data (treatment group, region of enrollment, baseline EDSS stratum, visit, treatment-by-visit interaction, baseline value, and baseline-by-visit interaction as factors). All the timepoints from randomization up to Week 48 were included in the model.


  • Core Treatment Period: Change From Baseline to Last Visit in Fatigue Impact Scale (FIS) Total Score [ Time Frame: Baseline (before randomization) and up to Week 152 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Baseline adjusted least-squares means at last visit were estimated using an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) model on collected data for FIS total score (treatment group, region of enrollment, baseline EDSS stratum, visit number for the last visit and baseline value as factors).

  • Core Treatment Period: Change From Baseline to Week 48 in Short Form Generic Health Survey - 36 Items (SF-36) Summary Scores [ Time Frame: Baseline (before randomization), Week 12, Week 24 and Week 48 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]

    SF-36 scale is a generic, self-administered, health-related quality-of-life (QOL) instrument. It is constructed such that the 36 questions represent 8 of the most important health concepts: physical functioning, role-physical, bodily pain, general health, vitality, social functioning, role-emotional, and mental health.

    Two summary scores are obtained:

    • the physical health component summary score,
    • the mental health component summary score.

    Both scores range from 0 to 100 and a high score indicates a more favorable health state.

    Baseline adjusted least-squares means at week 48 were estimated using a Mixed-effect model with repeated measures [MMRM] on each summary score data (treatment group, region of enrollment, baseline EDSS stratum, visit, treatment-by-visit interaction, baseline value, and baseline-by-visit interaction as factors). All the timepoints from randomization up to Week 48 were included in the model.


  • Core Treatment Period: Change From Baseline to Last Visit in Short Form Generic Health Survey - 36 Items (SF-36) Summary Scores [ Time Frame: Baseline (before randomization) and up to Week 152 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Baseline adjusted least-squares means at last visit were estimated using an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) model on collected data for each summary score (treatment group, region of enrollment, baseline EDSS stratum, visit number for the last visit and baseline value as factors).

  • Core Treatment Period: Overview of Adverse Events [ Time Frame: From first study drug intake up to 112 days after last intake in the core treatment period or up to first intake in the extension treatment period, whichever occurred first ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Adverse Events (AE) are any unfavorable and unintended sign, symptom, syndrome, or illness observed by the investigator or reported by the participant during the study.

  • Extension Treatment Period: Overview of Treatment Emergent Adverse Events (TEAE) [ Time Frame: From first intake of study drug in extension treatment period up to 28 days after the last intake in the extension treatment period ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    AEs were any unfavourable and unintended sign, symptom, syndrome, or illness observed by the investigator or reported by the participant during the study.

  • Extension Treatment Period: Time to Disability Progression [ Time Frame: Core treatment period (maximum: 173 weeks) and Extension treatment period (maximum: 174 weeks) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]

    Probability of disability progression since the randomization of the core period was estimated using Kaplan-Meier method on the time to disability progression defined as the time from randomization to first 12 week sustained disability progression [i.e. increase from baseline of at least 1 point in EDSS score (at least 0.5 point for participants with baseline EDSS score >5.5) that persisted for at least 12 weeks].

    Participants free of disability progression (no disability progression observed on treatment) were censored at the date of the last on-treatment EDSS evaluation.

    Kaplan-Meier method consists in computing probabilities of non occurrence of event at any observed time of event and multiplying successive probabilities for time ≤t by any earlier computed probabilities to estimate the probability of being event free for the amount of time t. Probability of event at time t was 1 minus the probability of being event-free for the amount of time t.


  • Extension Treatment Period: ARR: Poisson Regression Estimate [ Time Frame: Extension treatment period (Maximum: 174 weeks) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    ARR was obtained from the total number of confirmed relapses that occurred during the treatment period divided by the sum of treatment durations. A relapse is defined as the appearance of a new clinical sign/symptom or clinical worsening of a previous sign/symptom (one that had been stable for at least 30 days) that persists for a minimum of 24 hours in the absence of fever. Relapse was confirmed by an increase in EDSS score or Functional System scores. To account for the different treatment durations among participants, a Poisson regression model with robust error variance was used (total number of confirmed relapses as response variable; log-transformed treatment duration as "offset" variable; treatment group, region of enrolment and baseline EDSS stratum as covariates).


Other Outcome Measures:
  • Core Treatment Period: Liver Function: Number of Participants With Potentially Clinically Significant Abnormalities (PCSA) [ Time Frame: From first study drug intake up to 112 days after last intake in the core treatment period or up to first intake in the extension treatment period, whichever occurred first ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]

    PCSA values are abnormal values considered medically important by the Sponsor according to predefined criteria based on literature review.

    Hepatic parameters thresholds were defined as follows:

    • Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) >3, 5, 10 or 20 upper limit of normal(ULN);
    • Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) >3, 5, 10 or 20 ULN;
    • Alkaline Phosphatase >1.5 ULN;
    • Total Bilirubin (TB) >1.5 or 2 ULN;
    • ALT >3 ULN and TB >2 ULN.


Enrollment: 1169
Study Start Date: August 2008
Study Completion Date: August 2015
Primary Completion Date: April 2012 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: Teriflunomide 7 mg / 14 mg
Core treatment period: Teriflunomide 7 mg once daily. Extension treatment period: Teriflunomide 14 mg once daily.
Drug: Teriflunomide

Film-coated tablet

Oral administration

Other Name: HMR1726
Experimental: Teriflunomide 14 mg / 14 mg
Core treatment period: Teriflunomide 14 mg once daily. Extension treatment period: Teriflunomide 14 mg once daily.
Drug: Teriflunomide

Film-coated tablet

Oral administration

Other Name: HMR1726
Placebo Comparator: Placebo / Teriflunomide 14 mg
Core treatment period: Placebo (for teriflunomide) once daily. Extension treatment period: Teriflunomide 14 mg once daily.
Drug: Placebo

Film-coated tablet

Oral administration

Drug: Teriflunomide

Film-coated tablet

Oral administration

Other Name: HMR1726

Detailed Description:

The study consists of:

  • A core treatment period: Teriflunomide 7 mg or Teriflunomide 14 mg or placebo was administered in double-blind fashion until a fixed common end date which was approximately 48 weeks after randomization of the last participant.
  • An extension treatment period: the highest dose of teriflunomide was administered in open-label fashion to participants who successfully complete the core treatment period and wish to continue.

The overall treatment period was followed by a 4-week elimination follow-up period.

  Eligibility

Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 55 Years   (Adult)
Genders Eligible for Study:   Both
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Relapsing multiple sclerosis,
  • Two relapses in prior 2 years or one relapse in prior year.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Clinically relevant cardiovascular, hepatic, neurological, endocrine or other major systemic disease,
  • Significantly impaired bone marrow function or, significant anemia, leukopenia or thrombocytopenia,
  • Pregnant or nursing woman,
  • Alcohol or drug abuse,
  • Prior or concomitant use of cladribine, mitoxantrone, or other immunosuppressant agents such as azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, cyclosporin, methotrexate or mycophenolate,
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive,
  • Any known condition or circumstance that would prevent, in the investigator's opinion, compliance or completion of the study.

The above information is not intended to contain all considerations relevant to a participant's potential participation in a clinical trial.

  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00751881

  Show 193 Study Locations
Sponsors and Collaborators
Sanofi
Investigators
Study Director: Clinical Sciences & Operations Sanofi
  More Information

Publications:
Responsible Party: Sanofi
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00751881     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: EFC10531  2007-004452-36 
Study First Received: May 7, 2008
Results First Received: April 16, 2013
Last Updated: May 27, 2016
Health Authority: United States: Food and Drug Administration

Keywords provided by Sanofi:
relapsing multiple sclerosis

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Sclerosis
Multiple Sclerosis
Pathologic Processes
Demyelinating Autoimmune Diseases, CNS
Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System
Nervous System Diseases
Demyelinating Diseases
Autoimmune Diseases
Immune System Diseases

ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on August 25, 2016