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High-Dose Melphalan and a Second Stem Cell Transplant or Low-Dose Cyclophosphamide in Treating Patients With Relapsed Multiple Myeloma After Chemotherapy

The recruitment status of this study is unknown. The completion date has passed and the status has not been verified in more than two years.
Verified June 2009 by National Cancer Institute (NCI).
Recruitment status was:  Recruiting
Information provided by:
National Cancer Institute (NCI) Identifier:
First received: September 4, 2008
Last updated: August 9, 2013
Last verified: June 2009

RATIONALE: Giving chemotherapy and bortezomib before a peripheral stem cell transplant stops the growth of cancer cells by stopping them from dividing or killing them. Giving colony-stimulating factors, such as G-CSF, and certain chemotherapy drugs, helps stem cells move from the bone marrow to the blood so they can be collected and stored. Chemotherapy is then given to prepare the bone marrow for the stem cell transplant. The stem cells are then returned to the patient to replace the blood-forming cells that were destroyed by the chemotherapy and bortezomib. It is not yet known whether high-dose melphalan given together with a second stem cell transplant is more effective than low-dose cyclophosphamide in treating patients with relapsed multiple myeloma.

PURPOSE: This randomized phase III trial is studying giving high-dose melphalan together with a second stem cell transplant to see how well it works compared with low-dose cyclophosphamide in treating patients with relapsed multiple myeloma after chemotherapy.

Condition Intervention Phase
Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm
Drug: cyclophosphamide
Drug: melphalan
Procedure: autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
Phase 3

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Myeloma X Relapse (Intensive): A Phase III Study to Determine the Role of a Second Autologous Stem Cell Transplant as Consolidation Therapy in Patients With Relapsed Multiple Myeloma Following Prior High-dose Chemotherapy and Autologous Stem Cell Rescue.

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by National Cancer Institute (NCI):

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Time to disease progression

Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Response rate to bortezomib, doxorubicin hydrochloride, and dexamethasone (PAD)
  • Overall response rate following randomized treatments
  • Overall survival
  • Progression-free survival
  • Toxicity and safety of autologous stem cell transplantation
  • Toxicity and safety of weekly cyclophosphamide
  • Toxicity and safety of PAD therapy
  • Feasibility of stem cell collection
  • Pain
  • Quality of life

Estimated Enrollment: 460
Study Start Date: April 2008
Estimated Primary Completion Date: April 2012 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: Arm I
Patients receive high-dose melphalan IV on day -1 followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) on day 0.
Drug: melphalan
Given IV
Procedure: autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
Patients undergo autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation on day 0.
Experimental: Arm II
Patients receive low-dose cyclophosphamide IV or orally once a week for 12-20 weeks for a total of 12 courses.
Drug: cyclophosphamide
Given orally

Detailed Description:



  • To determine the effect on freedom from disease progression in patients with relapsed multiple myeloma treated with re-induction therapy comprising bortezomib, doxorubicin hydrochloride, and dexamethasone (PAD) followed by a second autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) with high-dose melphalan vs low-dose cyclophosphamide consolidation therapy.


  • To assess the response rate of PAD in patients following a previous autograft.
  • To compare the overall response rate of patients following high-dose melphalan chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation with low-dose cyclophosphamide consolidation therapy.
  • To assess the overall survival of patients treated with this regimen.
  • To assess the safety and toxicity of a second ASCT in these patients.
  • To assess the safety and toxicity of PAD in these patients.
  • To assess the feasibility of stem cell collection following PAD in these patients.
  • To determine the impact of this regimen on pain and quality of life in these patients.

OUTLINE: This is a multicenter study.

  • Re-induction (PAD) therapy: Patients receive bortezomib IV on days 1, 4, 8, and 11, doxorubicin hydrochloride IV continuously on days 1-4, and oral dexamethasone on days 1-4 (and days 8-11 and 15-18 of course 1 only). Treatment repeats every 21 days for up to 4 courses in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.
  • Peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) mobilization and harvest: Within 6-12 weeks, some patients receive cyclophosphamide IV on day 0 and filgrastim (G-CSF) subcutaneously (SC) beginning on day 1 and continuing to time of PBSC harvest. PBSCs are then collected.

Patients who successfully complete re-induction therapy and have adequate PBSC mobilization are stratified according to length of first remission or plateau (≤ vs ≥ 24 months) and response to PAD re-induction therapy (stable disease vs ≥ partial response). Patients are randomized to 1 of 2 arms.

  • Arm I (high-dose melphalan consolidation therapy): Patients receive high-dose melphalan IV on day -1 followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) on day 0.
  • Arm II (low-dose cyclophosphamide consolidation therapy): Patients receive low-dose cyclophosphamide IV or orally once a week for 12-20 weeks for a total of 12 courses.

Patients complete the EORTC QLQ-C30 and EORTC QLQ-MY20, the Brief Pain Inventory Short Form (BPI-SF), and the Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (Self Assessment) Pain Scale (S-LANSS) questionnaires at baseline and after completion of re-induction therapy.

Patients are followed monthly for up to 100 days after ASCT or at 30 days after low-dose cyclophosphamide and then every 3 months for 5 years.


Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Senior)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No


  • Diagnosis of relapsed multiple myeloma

    • Symptomatic disease, including non-secretory
  • Previously treated with standard chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation
  • Requires therapy for first progressive disease AND at least 18 months since first stem cell transplantation

    • Patients who were previously immunofixation-negative and are now immunofixation-positive must have > 5 g/L absolute increase in paraprotein
  • Registered in the Myeloma X Relapse (Intensive) Trial and received 2-4 courses of PAD re-induction chemotherapy according to the protocol (consolidation phase)
  • Adequate stem cell mobilization available for transplantation defined as ≥ 2x10^6 CD34 + cells/kg or ≥ 2x10^8 PBMC/kg including cells stored from a previous harvest (consolidation phase)


  • ECOG performance status 0-2
  • ANC ≥ 1 x 10^9/L
  • Platelet count ≥ 50 x 10^9/L
  • Creatinine clearance ≥ 30 mL/min
  • Total bilirubin < 2 times upper limit of normal (ULN)
  • ALT or AST < 2.5 times ULN
  • History of pulmonary disease allowed provided carbon monoxide diffusion in the lungs (KCO/DLCO) is ≥ 50% and/or no requirement for supplementary continuous oxygen
  • Left ventricular ejection fraction ≥ 40% by ECG or MUGA scan
  • Not pregnant or nursing
  • Negative pregnancy test
  • Fertile patients must use effective contraception during and for 6 months after completion of study treatment
  • No peripheral neuropathy ≥ grade 2
  • No known HIV or Hepatitis B or C positivity (testing is not required)
  • No known resistance to combined bortezomib, doxorubicin hydrochloride, and dexamethasone therapy
  • No known history of allergy to compounds containing boron or mannitol
  • No other previous or concurrent malignancies except for appropriately treated localized epithelial skin cancer or carcinoma in situ of the cervix, or remote histories of other cured tumors within the past 5 years
  • No medical or psychiatric condition which, in the opinion of the investigator, contraindicates the patient's participation in the study
  • No other contra-indication to treatment that would make the patient ineligible for consolidation phase


  • See Disease Characteristics
  • No other prior therapy for relapsed disease except for local radiotherapy, therapeutic plasma exchange, or ≤ 200 mg of dexamethasone

    • Radiotherapy since prior transplantation sufficient to alleviate or control pain of local invasion is permitted
  • No hemi-body radiation since prior transplantation (consolidation phase)
  • At least 4 weeks since prior and no concurrent investigational drugs
  Contacts and Locations
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Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT00747877

  Show 53 Study Locations
Sponsors and Collaborators
Leeds Cancer Centre at St. James's University Hospital
Principal Investigator: Gordon Cook, MD, PhD Leeds Cancer Centre at St. James's University Hospital
  More Information

Publications automatically indexed to this study by Identifier (NCT Number):
Michaelis LC, Saad A, Zhong X, Le-Rademacher J, Freytes CO, Marks DI, Lazarus HM, Bird JM, Holmberg L, Kamble RT, Kumar S, Lill M, Meehan KR, Saber W, Schriber J, Tay J, Vogl DT, Wirk B, Savani BN, Gale RP, Vesole DH, Schiller GJ, Abidi M, Anderson KC, Nishihori T, Kalaycio ME, Vose JM, Moreb JS, Drobyski W, Munker R, Roy V, Ghobadi A, Holland HK, Nath R, To LB, Maiolino A, Kassim AA, Giralt SA, Landau H, Schouten HC, Maziarz RT, Mikhael J, Kindwall-Keller T, Stiff PJ, Gibson J, Lonial S, Krishnan A, Dispenzieri A, Hari P; Plasma Cell Disorders Working Committee of the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research.. Salvage second hematopoietic cell transplantation in myeloma. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2013 May;19(5):760-6. doi: 10.1016/j.bbmt.2013.01.004. Epub 2013 Jan 5. Identifier: NCT00747877     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: LCC-HM05/7287
CDR0000612567 ( Registry Identifier: PDQ (Physician Data Query) )
Study First Received: September 4, 2008
Last Updated: August 9, 2013

Keywords provided by National Cancer Institute (NCI):
stage II multiple myeloma
stage III multiple myeloma
refractory multiple myeloma
stage I multiple myeloma

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Multiple Myeloma
Neoplasms, Plasma Cell
Neoplasms by Histologic Type
Hemostatic Disorders
Vascular Diseases
Cardiovascular Diseases
Blood Protein Disorders
Hematologic Diseases
Hemorrhagic Disorders
Lymphoproliferative Disorders
Immunoproliferative Disorders
Immune System Diseases
Immunosuppressive Agents
Immunologic Factors
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Antirheumatic Agents
Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating
Alkylating Agents
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Antineoplastic Agents
Myeloablative Agonists processed this record on May 25, 2017