Primary Outcome Measures:
- All-cause dementia and Mild Cognitive Impairment [ Time Frame: Measured annually ]
Secondary Outcome Measures:
- Global and domain specific cognitive function [ Time Frame: Measured annually ]
Identification of the predictors of cognitive impairment and cognitive resilience among aging women is important because the incidence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia increases with age and women live the longest. The Women's Health Initiative Memory Study examined the impact of randomization to hormone therapy (conjugated equine estrogen alone or in combination with medroxyprogesterone vs. placebo) in a subset of participants aged 65-79 years at enrollment into WHI and the WHI Hormone Trials. WHIMS revealed an increased risk of all-cause dementia and MCI plus poorer global cognitive function among women randomized to HT compared to those receiving placebo. WHIMS ECHO is a prospective, observational study of the remaining cohort of WHIMS participants following cessation of treatment. Annual cognitive assessments of learning, attention, memory, working memory, executive function and language are conducted by telephone by trained staff and adjudication of incident cognitive impairment (MCI and dementia) continues. This enables the continued monitoring of long-term effects of randomization to HT on cognition and identification of predictors of cognitive aging and resilience in older women.