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Health Benefits of Vitamin D and Calcium in Women With PCOS (Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome)

This study has been completed.
National Center for Research Resources (NCRR)
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Lubna Pal, Yale University Identifier:
First received: August 28, 2008
Last updated: June 20, 2013
Last verified: June 2013
The investigators conducted a prospective un-blinded pilot study of Vitamin D plus Calcium (Ca) supplementation in overweight (BMI > 27) premenopausal women diagnosed with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS), as defined by the Rotterdam Criteria, 2003, and who were deficient in vitamin D as reflected by serum 25-hydroxy (25-OH) vitamin D (serum levels < 20 ng/mL).

Condition Intervention
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Vitamin D Deficiency Dietary Supplement: Vitamin D2 (Ergocalciferol) Drug: Medroxyprogesterone (Provera) Dietary Supplement: Vitamin D3 (Cholecalciferol) Dietary Supplement: Elemental Calcium

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Health Benefits of Vitamin D and Calcium in Women With PCOS (Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome)

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by Lubna Pal, Yale University:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Participants Were Assessed at Study Completion After 3 Month Treatment [ Time Frame: Completion ]
    Fasting HbA1C levels at study completion after 3 month treatment

  • Fasting Insulin Levels at Study Completion After 3 Month Treatment [ Time Frame: 3 months intervention ]
    Fasting insulin levels at study completion after 3 month treatment

  • Fasting Glucose Levels at Completion of Treatment, at 3 Months [ Time Frame: 3 months ]
    Fasting glucose levels drawn after 3 months completion during oral GTT

  • AUC (Area Under a Curve at 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 Hours) Insulin During 2 Hour GTT at Completion, at 3 Months [ Time Frame: 3 months ]
    Following 3 months intervention, AUC insulin was determined during 2 hour oral GTT

  • AUC (Area Under the Curve at 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 Hours) During Oral GTT at Completion, at 3 Months [ Time Frame: 3 months ]
    AUC (Area under the curve at 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 hours)for glucose was determined at completion of 3 months intervention for 2 hour oral GTT

Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Serum Levels of C-reactive Protein at Completion of 3 Months Treatment Compared to Baseline. [ Time Frame: 3 months ]
    Serum levels of C-reactive protein upon completion, at 3 months

Enrollment: 36
Study Start Date: August 2008
Study Completion Date: February 2013
Primary Completion Date: February 2013 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: Vitamin D plus Calcium (Ca) supplementation Dietary Supplement: Vitamin D2 (Ergocalciferol)
50,000IU (or 1 tablet), PO, monthly (supplements to be taken for three months)
Drug: Medroxyprogesterone (Provera)
10mg, PO, daily for ten days
Dietary Supplement: Vitamin D3 (Cholecalciferol)
2,000IU (or 2 tablets), PO, daily (supplements taken for three months)
Dietary Supplement: Elemental Calcium
1,000mg (or 2 tablets), PO, daily (supplements taken for three months)

Detailed Description:

We had hypothesized that in women with PCOS, administering optimal daily doses of vitamin D3, as recommended by the National Academy of Sciences, 2000IU Cholecalciferol and 1000mg of calcium, both per oral (PO), over a three month period will improve their metabolic picture, and possibly hormone profile.

Over the course of the trial, after the first 5 subjects had completed 3 month intervention,we observed that daily 2000IU D3 dosing regime was inadequate in normalizing vitamin D status in the study population; the dosing regimen was therefore modified to include weekly supplementation with 50,000IU D2 in addition to daily dosing with 2000IU D3.


Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 40 Years   (Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   Female
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Premenopausal women (ages 18-40 years) with normal thyroid function and prolactin levels.
  • PCOS diagnosis based on Rotterdam criteria: presence of at least 2 of the following criteria:

    • oligomenorrhea-menstrual cycles > 35 day intervals
    • hyperandrogenemia (elevated serum testosterone [free or total] &/or androstenedione levels) or features of hyperandrogenism i.e. acne or hirsuitism [Ferriman-Gallaway score > 3]
    • polycystic ovaries on vaginal ultrasound as defined by ESHRE/ASRM criteria (ovarian volume ≥ 10mL or ≥ 12 follicles of diameter between 2-9mm in at least one ovary)
    • Overweight (BMI ≥ 27 Kg/m2)
    • Biochemical evidence of Vitamin D insufficiency (i.e. serum 25 OHD levels < 20ng/mL)

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Pregnancy
  • Known causes of oligomenorrhea other than PCOS, e.g. hypothyroidism/Cushing's Disease/late onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia (fasting 17-alphahydroxyprogesterone levels < 200ng/dL)
  • Use of hormonal treatment (birth control pill/patch/depot medroxyprogesterone/medroxyprogesterone) within 3 months of the study onset.
  • Use insulin sensitizers (metformin, sulfonylureas, TZDs, incretins) within 3 months of the study onset.
  • Use of lipid lowering agents or medications known to influence insulin sensitivity (e.g. niacin, corticosteroids, beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, thiazide diuretics) or influence serum androgens (estrogen, anti-androgens, androgens) within 3 months of the study onset.
  • Known history of renal calculi or current use of Calcium and Vitamin D supplements.
  • Spanish Speaking.
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Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT00743574

United States, Connecticut
Yale-New Haven Hospital-Women's Center
New Haven, Connecticut, United States, 06520-8063
Sponsors and Collaborators
Yale University
National Center for Research Resources (NCRR)
Principal Investigator: Lubna Pal, MBBS,MRCOG,MSc. Yale University
  More Information

Publications automatically indexed to this study by Identifier (NCT Number):
Responsible Party: Lubna Pal, Principal Investigator, Yale University Identifier: NCT00743574     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: YaleU-0807003992
YCCI-CARE Grant #UL1RR024139
Study First Received: August 28, 2008
Results First Received: February 15, 2013
Last Updated: June 20, 2013

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Vitamin D Deficiency
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
Pathologic Processes
Deficiency Diseases
Nutrition Disorders
Ovarian Cysts
Ovarian Diseases
Adnexal Diseases
Genital Diseases, Female
Gonadal Disorders
Endocrine System Diseases
Vitamin D
Calcium, Dietary
Medroxyprogesterone Acetate
Growth Substances
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Bone Density Conservation Agents
Contraceptives, Oral, Synthetic
Contraceptives, Oral processed this record on September 19, 2017