Primary Outcome Measures:
- The incidence of herbal nephropathy [ Time Frame: 5 years ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
Secondary Outcome Measures:
- The epidemiology of primary diagnosis for end stage renal disease in Taiwan [ Time Frame: 5 years ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
This is a retrospective study, by computer screening, chart review and phone survey to find herbal nephropathy and determine the cause-relationship.
Using ICD-9-CM code as a tool to screen the newly diagnosed ESRD in NTUH computer data base, and divided patients into those with underlying disease(s) that cause the renal failure and those without.