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Effects of Atomoxetine on Brain Activation During Attention & Reading Tasks in Participants With ADHD & Comorbid Dyslexia

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00716274
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : July 16, 2008
Results First Posted : February 7, 2018
Last Update Posted : February 7, 2018
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Eli Lilly and Company

Brief Summary:
This study will evaluate the effects of atomoxetine on brain activation during attention and reading tasks via functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) in participants ages 10 to 16 years old with ADHD and comorbid dyslexia

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Dyslexia Drug: Atomoxetine Drug: Placebo Phase 4

Detailed Description:
This is a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, single site study that uses an fMRI measurement to assess brain activation during attention and reading tasks and the effects of atomoxetine in reducing symptoms of ADHD in participants with ADHD and comorbid dyslexia. Similar assessments are performed in two additional groups of participants with ADHD only and dyslexia only to determine to what extent symptomatic change in the comorbid ADHD & dyslexia is achieved independently by atomoxetine effects on either condition. A healthy control group of non-ADHD, non-dyslexia subjects (20) will be included to monitor practice effects & effects of treatment that may be interpreted as normal maturation. The healthy control group will not be treated with any study medications.

Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 110 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Double (Participant, Investigator)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Neurophysiology of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Comorbid Dyslexia: Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) Measures of Brain Activation During Attention and Reading Tasks Pre- and Post-Atomoxetine Treatment
Study Start Date : September 2008
Primary Completion Date : July 2016
Study Completion Date : July 2016

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

U.S. FDA Resources

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Atomoxetine
Atomoxetine will be administered at 1.0 to 1.4 mg/kg/day given orally once daily in the morning for 16 weeks (study period II). Participants who complete the study period II will be re-randomized in the study period III of 16-week duration to assess maintenance of benefit following discontinuation of treatment with atomoxetine. Participants assigned to atomoxetine during the study period II will be re-randomized to either atomoxetine or placebo whereas participants previously assigned to placebo will receive atomoxetine.
Drug: Atomoxetine
Atomoxetine will be administered at 1.0 to 1.4 mg/kg/day given orally once daily in the morning for 16 weeks
Other Name: LY139603
Placebo Comparator: Placebo
Placebo will be packaged in the same way as active comparator to enforce double-blind study design
Drug: Placebo
oral, daily, for 16 weeks



Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) Activation in Participants With Dyslexia Alone (Pseudoword Rhyming and Semantic-category Tasks) [ Time Frame: Baseline, 16 Weeks ]
    For this trial, Lilly contracted an academic institution to process the fMRI data. However, there are contractual delays limiting the timing, and Lilly will not have access to the processed fMRI data until approximately March 2018.

  2. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in fMRI Activation in Participants With Dyslexia Alone (Stroop Attention Tasks) [ Time Frame: Baseline, 16 Weeks ]
    For this trial, Lilly contracted an academic institution to process the fMRI data. However, there are contractual delays limiting the timing, and Lilly will not have access to the processed fMRI data until approximately March 2018.

  3. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in fMRI Activation in Participants With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) or ADHD + Dyslexia (Stroop Attention Tasks) [ Time Frame: Baseline, 16 Weeks ]
    For this trial, Lilly contracted an academic institution to process the fMRI data. However, there are contractual delays limiting the timing, and Lilly will not have access to the processed fMRI data until approximately March 2018.

  4. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in fMRI Activation in Participants With ADHD or ADHD + Dyslexia (Pseudoword Rhyming and Semantic-category Tasks) [ Time Frame: Baseline, 16 Weeks ]
    For this trial, Lilly contracted an academic institution to process the fMRI data. However, there are contractual delays limiting the timing, and Lilly will not have access to the processed fMRI data until approximately March 2018.

  5. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in Woodcock Johnson Tests of Achievement (WJ III) Word Attack Total Score in Participants With Dyslexia Alone [ Time Frame: Baseline, 16 Weeks ]
    WJ III (Woodcock et al. 2001) has two parallel forms (A and B) alternating two batteries of tests—Standard and Extended. Standard tests (1 -12) have a broad set of scores. Extended tests (13 -22) have a more in-depth diagnostic assessment of academic strengths and weaknesses. Tests administered were 1, 2, 7, 9, 13, 17, and 20. The standard score scale is a mean (M) of 100 and a standard deviation (SD) of 15. The WJ III ACH has extended standard scores which is a greater range of standard scores. Test 13, Word Attack, measures skill in applying phonic, structural analysis to the pronunciation of unfamiliar printed words. Each individual test scores range from 0 to over 200 where 69 and below is very low and 131 and above is very superior. Higher scores indicate better reading skills. Least Square (LS) Mean was analyzed using last observation carried forward (LOCF), fixed-effects analysis of covariate (ANCOVA) models with terms for treatment, gender, baseline, age, treatment*baseline.

  6. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale-IV-Parent Version (ADHDRS) Total Score in the ADHD or ADHD + Dyslexia [ Time Frame: Baseline, 16 weeks ]
    The ADHDRS-IV-Parent is an 18-item scale with 1 item for each of the 18 symptoms contained in the DSM-IV diagnosis of ADHD. Each item is scored on a 0 to 3 scale: 0=none (never or rarely); 1=mild (sometimes); 2=moderate (often); 3=severe (very often). Total scores range from 0-54. Higher scores indicate higher impairment and lower scores indicate no impairment. LS mean was calculated using a restricted maximum likelihood (REML)-based, MMRM analysis which includes treatment, baseline, visit, treatment-by-visit interaction, and baseline-by-visit interaction.


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in Basic Reading Skills Cluster WJ III in Participants With Dyslexia Alone [ Time Frame: Baseline, 16 Weeks ]
    WJ III (Woodcock et al. 2001) has two parallel forms (A and B) alternating two batteries of tests—Standard and Extended. The standard score scale is a mean (M) of 100 and a standard deviation (SD) of 15. Basic Reading Skills is an aggregate measure of sight vocabulary, phonics, and structural analysis. It is a combination of Test 1, Letter-Word Identification, which measures the participant's word identification skills, and Test 13, Word Attack, which measures skill in applying phonic and structural analysis skills to the pronunciation of unfamiliar printed words. It is the average (arithmetic mean) of the tests 1 and 13. Scores for each individual test range from 0 to over 200 where 69 and below is very low and 131 and above is very superior. Higher scores indicate better reading skills. LS mean was analyzed using LOCF, fixed-effects ANCOVA models with terms for treatment, gender, baseline, age, treatment*baseline.

  2. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in BADD-A Total Score in Participants With ADHD or ADHD + Dyslexia [ Time Frame: Baseline, 16 Weeks ]
    The BADD-A is used to assess impairment in executive functions related to ADHD. These include 1) Organizing, prioritizing, and activating to work; 2) Focusing, sustaining and shifting attention to tasks; 3) Regulating alertness, sustaining effort, and processing speed; 4) Managing frustration and modulating emotions; 5) Utilizing working memory and accessing recall (Brown 2001). Scores range from 0-120. The higher the score the more severe the attention-deficit disorder (ADD). 0-39 equate to, "ADD possible but not likely". 40-54 equate to, "ADD probable but not certain". 55-120 equate to, "ADD highly probable". LS mean was calculated using a REML-based, MMRM analysis which includes treatment, baseline, visit, treatment-by-visit interaction, and baseline-by-visit interaction.

  3. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in WJ III Individual Test Scores in Participants With Dyslexia Alone [ Time Frame: Baseline, 16 Weeks ]
    WJ III (Woodcock et al. 2001) has two parallel forms (A and B) alternating two batteries of tests—Standard and Extended. Standard tests (1 -12) have a broad set of scores. Extended tests (13 -22) have a more in-depth diagnostic assessment of academic strengths and weaknesses. Tests administered were 1, 2, 7, 9, 13, 17, and 20. The standard score scale is a mean (M) of 100 and a standard deviation (SD) of 15. The WJ III ACH has extended standard scores, which is a greater range of standard scores. Scores for each individual test range from 0 to over 200 where 69 and below is very low and 131 and above is very superior. Higher scores indicate better reading skills. LS mean was analyzed using LOCF, fixed-effects ANCOVA models with terms for treatment, gender, baseline, age, treatment*baseline.

  4. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in WJ III Individual Test Scores in Participants With ADHD + Dyslexia [ Time Frame: Baseline, 16 Weeks ]
    WJ III (Woodcock et al. 2001) has two parallel forms (A and B) alternating two batteries of tests—Standard and Extended. Standard tests (1 -12) have a broad set of scores. Extended tests (13 -22) have a more in-depth diagnostic assessment of academic strengths and weaknesses. Tests administered were 1, 2, 7, 9, 13, 17, and 20. The standard score scale is a mean (M) of 100 and a standard deviation (SD) of 15. The WJ III ACH has extended standard scores, which is a greater range of standard scores. Scores for each individual test range from 0 to over 200 where 69 and below is very low and 131 and above is very superior. Higher scores indicate better reading skills. LS mean was analyzed using LOCF, fixed-effects ANCOVA models with terms for treatment, gender, baseline, age, treatment*baseline.

  5. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in WJ III Individual Test Scores in Participants With ADHD Alone [ Time Frame: Baseline, 16 Weeks ]
    WJ III (Woodcock et al. 2001) has two parallel forms (A and B) alternating two batteries of tests—Standard and Extended. Standard tests (1 -12) have a broad set of scores. Extended tests (13 -22) have a more in-depth diagnostic assessment of academic strengths and weaknesses. Tests administered were 1, 2, 7, 9, 13, 17, and 20. The standard score scale is a mean (M) of 100 and a standard deviation (SD) of 15. The WJ III ACH has extended standard scores, which is a greater range of standard scores. Scores for each individual test range from 0 to over 200 where 69 and below is very low and 131 and above is very superior. Higher scores indicate better reading skills. LS mean was analyzed using LOCF, fixed-effects ANCOVA models with terms for treatment, gender, baseline, age, treatment*baseline.

  6. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP) Composite Scores in Participants With Dyslexia Alone [ Time Frame: Baseline, 16 weeks ]
    The CTOPP assesses phonological awareness, phonological memory, and rapid naming and is appropriate for ages 7 to 24. The test contains six core subtests. The composite scores are 1) Phonological Awareness, comprised of the standard scores of the Elision and Blending Words; 2) Phonological Memory, comprised of standard scores for Memory for Digits and Non-word Repetition; and 3) Rapid Naming, comprised of standard scores for Rapid Digit Naming and Rapid Letter Naming. Standard scores range from 1-20, and composite scores range from 35-165. Higher scores are better and lower scores are poor. LS mean was analyzed using LOCF, fixed-effects ANCOVA models with terms for treatment, gender, baseline, age, treatment*baseline.

  7. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in CTOPP Composite Score in Participants With ADHD + Dyslexia [ Time Frame: Baseline, 16 weeks ]
    The CTOPP assesses phonological awareness, phonological memory, and rapid naming and is appropriate for ages 7 to 24. The test contains six core subtests. The composite scores are 1) Phonological Awareness, comprised of the standard scores of the Elision and Blending Words; 2) Phonological Memory, comprised of standard scores for Memory for Digits and Non-word Repetition; and 3) Rapid Naming, comprised of standard scores for Rapid Digit Naming and Rapid Letter Naming. Standard scores range from 1-20, and composite scores range from 35-165. Higher scores are better and lower scores are poor. LS mean was analyzed using LOCF, fixed-effects ANCOVA models with terms for treatment, gender, baseline, age, treatment*baseline.

  8. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in CTOPP Composite Score in Participants With ADHD Alone [ Time Frame: Baseline, 16 weeks ]
    The CTOPP assesses phonological awareness, phonological memory, and rapid naming and is appropriate for ages 7 to 24. The test contains six core subtests. The composite scores are 1) Phonological Awareness, comprised of the standard scores of the Elision and Blending Words; 2) Phonological Memory, comprised of standard scores for Memory for Digits and Non-word Repetition; and 3) Rapid Naming, comprised of standard scores for Rapid Digit Naming and Rapid Letter Naming. Standard scores range from 1-20, and composite scores range from 35-165. Higher scores are better and lower scores are poor. LS mean was analyzed using LOCF, fixed-effects ANCOVA models with terms for treatment, gender, baseline, age, treatment*baseline.

  9. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in Gray Oral Reading Tests-4 (GORT-4) in Participants With Dyslexia Alone [ Time Frame: Baseline, 16 weeks ]
    The GORT-4 is a norm-referenced test of oral reading rate, accuracy, fluency, and comprehension valid for individuals aged 6 to 18 years old. The test has two parallel forms, Form A and Form B, that are administered in an alternating fashion (e.g. Week 0-Form A, Week 16-Form B, Week 32-Form A.) with each containing 14 separate stories and 5 multiple-choice comprehension questions for each story. GORT-4 yields the following scores: rate, accuracy, fluency, comprehension, and overall reading ability. Standard scores range from 1-20. Higher scores indicate better reading skills. Lower scores indicate poor reading skills. LS mean was analyzed using LOCF, fixed-effects ANCOVA models of with terms for treatment, gender, baseline, age, treatment*baseline.

  10. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in GORT-4 in Participants With ADHD + Dyslexia [ Time Frame: Baseline, 16 weeks ]
    The GORT-4 is a norm-referenced test of oral reading rate, accuracy, fluency, and comprehension valid for individuals aged 6 to 18 years old. The test has two parallel forms, Form A and Form B, that are administered in an alternating fashion (e.g. Week 0-Form A, Week 16-Form B, Week 32-Form A.) with each containing 14 separate stories and 5 multiple-choice comprehension questions for each story. GORT-4 yields the following scores: rate, accuracy, fluency, comprehension, and overall reading ability. Standard scores range from 1-20. Higher scores indicate better reading skills. Lower scores indicate poor reading skills. LS mean was analyzed using LOCF, fixed-effects ANCOVA models with terms of treatment, gender, baseline, age, treatment*baseline.

  11. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in GORT-4 in Participants With ADHD Alone [ Time Frame: Baseline, 16 weeks ]
    The GORT-4 is a norm-referenced test of oral reading rate, accuracy, fluency, and comprehension valid for individuals aged 6 to 18 years old. The test has two parallel forms, Form A and Form B, that are administered in an alternating fashion (e.g. Week 0-Form A, Week 16-Form B, Week 32-Form A.) with each containing 14 separate stories and 5 multiple-choice comprehension questions for each story. GORT-4 yields the following scores: rate, accuracy, fluency, comprehension, and overall reading ability. Standard scores range from 1-20. Higher scores indicate better reading skills. Lower scores indicate poor reading skills. LS mean was analyzed using LOCF, fixed-effects ANCOVA models with terms of treatment, gender, baseline, age, treatment*baseline.

  12. Change From Baseline to Endpoint Test of Word Reading Efficiency (TOWRE) Total Score in Participants With Dyslexia Alone [ Time Frame: Baseline, 16 Weeks ]
    The TOWRE is a measure of an individual's ability to pronounce printed words accurately and fluently and is appropriate for individuals aged 6 to 24 years old. The TOWRE contains two subtests: Sight Word Efficiency (SWE) which assesses the number of real printed words that can be accurately identified within 45 seconds and Phonemic Decoding Efficiency (PDE) which measures the number of pronounceable printed non-words that can be accurately decoded within 45 seconds. The total standard score ranges from 35-165. Higher scores indicate higher reading proficiency and lower scores indicate lower reading proficiency. LS mean was calculated using a REML-based, MMRM analysis which includes treatment, baseline, visit, treatment-by-visit interaction, and baseline-by-visit interaction.

  13. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in TOWRE Total Score in Participants With ADHD or ADHD + Dyslexia [ Time Frame: Baseline, 16 Weeks ]
    The TOWRE is a measure of an individual's ability to pronounce printed words accurately and fluently and is appropriate for individuals aged 6 to 24 years old. The TOWRE contains two subtests: Sight Word Efficiency (SWE) which assesses the number of real printed words that can be accurately identified within 45 seconds and Phonemic Decoding Efficiency (PDE) which measures the number of pronounceable printed non-words that can be accurately decoded within 45 seconds. The total standard score ranges from 35-165. Higher scores indicate higher reading proficiency and lower scores indicate lower reading proficiency. LS mean was calculated using a REML-based, MMRM analysis which includes treatment, baseline, visit, treatment-by-visit interaction, and baseline-by-visit interaction.

  14. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in Working Memory Test Battery for Children (WMTB-C) in Participants With Dyslexia Alone [ Time Frame: Baseline, 16 Weeks ]
    WMTB-C is assessment of working memory capacities, consisting of 9 subtests (Trials Correct Scores [Range from 55-145], Higher scores are better, Lower scores are poor) reflecting 3 main components of working memory: central executive (CE) control/regulation of working memory (Backward Digit Recall, Listening Recall, Counting Recall); phonological loop (PL) responsible for holding verbal information for short periods (Digit Recall, Word List Matching, Word List Recall, Non-word List Recall); and visuo-spatial sketchpad (VSSP) which holds information in visual and spatial form (Block Recall, Mazes Memory). LS mean was analyzed using LOCF, fixed-effects ANCOVA models with terms for treatment, gender, baseline, age, treatment*baseline.

  15. Change From Baseline to Endpoint WMTB-C in Participants With ADHD + Dyslexia [ Time Frame: Baseline, 16 Weeks ]
    WMTB-C is assessment of working memory capacities, consisting of 9 subtests (Trials Correct Scores [Range from 55-145], Higher scores are better, Lower scores are poor) reflecting 3 main components of working memory: central executive (CE) control/regulation of working memory (Backward Digit Recall, Listening Recall, Counting Recall); phonological loop (PL) responsible for holding verbal information for short periods (Digit Recall, Word List Matching, Word List Recall, Non-word List Recall); and visuo-spatial sketchpad (VSSP) which holds information in visual and spatial form (Block Recall, Mazes Memory). LS mean was analyzed using LOCF, fixed-effects ANCOVA models with terms for treatment, gender, baseline, age, treatment*baseline.

  16. Change From Baseline to Endpoint WMTB-C in Participants With ADHD Alone [ Time Frame: Baseline, 16 Weeks ]
    WMTB-C is assessment of working memory capacities, consisting of 9 subtests (Trials Correct Scores [Range from 55-145], Higher scores are better, Lower scores are poor) reflecting 3 main components of working memory: central executive (CE) control/regulation of working memory (Backward Digit Recall, Listening Recall, Counting Recall); phonological loop (PL) responsible for holding verbal information for short periods (Digit Recall, Word List Matching, Word List Recall, Non-word List Recall); and visuo-spatial sketchpad (VSSP) which holds information in visual and spatial form (Block Recall, Mazes Memory). LS mean was analyzed using LOCF, fixed-effects ANCOVA models with terms for treatment, gender, baseline, age, treatment*baseline.

  17. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in BADD-A Total Score in Participants With Dyslexia Alone [ Time Frame: Baseline, 16 Weeks ]
    The BADD-A is used to assess impairment in executive functions related to ADHD. These include 1) Organizing, prioritizing, and activating to work; 2) Focusing, sustaining and shifting attention to tasks; 3) Regulating alertness, sustaining effort, and processing speed; 4) Managing frustration and modulating emotions; 5) Utilizing working memory and accessing recall (Brown 2001). Scores range from 0-120. The higher the score the more severe the ADD. Scores of 0-39 equate to "ADD possible but not likely". Scores of 40-54 equate to "ADD probable but not certain". Scores of 55-120 equate to "ADD highly probable". LS mean was calculated using a REML-based, MMRM analysis which includes treatment, baseline, visit, treatment-by-visit interaction, and baseline-by-visit interaction.

  18. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in ADHDRS-IV Total Score in Participants With Dyslexia Alone [ Time Frame: Baseline, 16 Weeks ]
    The ADHDRS-IV-Parent is an 18-item scale with 1 item for each of the 18 symptoms contained in the DSM-IV diagnosis of ADHD. Each item is scored on a 0 to 3 scale: 0=none (never or rarely); 1=mild (sometimes); 2=moderate (often); 3=severe (very often). Total scores range from 0-54. Higher scores indicate higher impairment and lower scores indicate no impairment. LS mean was calculated using a REML-based, MMRM analysis which includes treatment, baseline, visit, treatment-by-visit interaction, and baseline-by-visit interaction.

  19. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in WJ III Individual Scores in Participants With Dyslexia Alone [ Time Frame: Baseline, 32 Weeks ]
    WJ III (Woodcock et al. 2001) has two parallel forms (A and B) alternating two batteries of tests—Standard and Extended. Standard tests (1 -12) have a broad set of scores. Extended tests (13 -22) have a more in-depth diagnostic assessment of academic strengths and weaknesses. Tests administered were 1, 2, 7, 9, 13, 17, and 20. The standard score scale is a mean (M) of 100 and a standard deviation (SD) of 15. The WJ III ACH has extended standard scores, which is a greater range of standard scores. Scores for each individual test range from 0 to over 200 where 69 and below is very low and 131 and above is very superior. Higher scores indicate better reading skills. LS mean was analyzed using LOCF, fixed-effects ANCOVA models with terms for gender, baseline score, and age.

  20. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in WJ III Individual Scores in Participants With ADHD + Dyslexia [ Time Frame: Baseline, 32 Weeks ]
    WJ III (Woodcock et al. 2001) has two parallel forms (A and B) alternating two batteries of tests—Standard and Extended. Standard tests (1 -12) have a broad set of scores. Extended tests (13 -22) have a more in-depth diagnostic assessment of academic strengths and weaknesses. Tests administered were 1, 2, 7, 9, 13, 17, and 20. The standard score scale is a mean (M) of 100 and a standard deviation (SD) of 15. The WJ III ACH has extended standard scores, which is a greater range of standard scores. Scores for each individual test range from 0 to over 200 where 69 and below is very low and 131 and above is very superior. Higher scores indicate better reading skills. LS mean was analyzed using LOCF, fixed-effects ANCOVA models with terms for treatment, gender, baseline score, age, and baseline score by treatment interaction.

  21. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in WJ III Individual Scores in Participants With ADHD Alone [ Time Frame: Baseline, 32 Weeks ]
    WJ III (Woodcock et al. 2001) has two parallel forms (A and B) alternating two batteries of tests—Standard and Extended. Standard tests (1 -12) have a broad set of scores. Extended tests (13 -22) have a more in-depth diagnostic assessment of academic strengths and weaknesses. Tests administered were 1, 2, 7, 9, 13, 17, and 20. The standard score scale is a mean (M) of 100 and a standard deviation (SD) of 15. The WJ III ACH has extended standard scores, which is a greater range of standard scores. Scores for each individual test range from 0 to over 200 where 69 and below is very low and 131 and above is very superior. Higher scores indicate better reading skills. LS mean was analyzed using LOCF, fixed-effects ANCOVA models with terms for treatment, gender, baseline score, age, and baseline score by treatment interaction.

  22. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in CTOPP Composite Scores in Participants With Dyslexia Alone [ Time Frame: Baseline, 32 Weeks ]
    The CTOPP assesses phonological awareness, phonological memory, and rapid naming and is appropriate for ages 7 to 24. The test contains six core subtests. The composite scores are 1) Phonological Awareness, comprised of the standard scores of the Elision and Blending Words; 2) Phonological Memory, comprised of standard scores for Memory for Digits and Non-word Repetition; and 3) Rapid Naming, comprised of standard scores for Rapid Digit Naming and Rapid Letter Naming. Standard scores range from 1-20, and composite scores range from 35-165. Higher scores are better and lower scores are poor. LS mean was analyzed using LOCF, fixed-effects ANCOVA models with terms for treatment, gender, baseline, age, treatment*baseline.

  23. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in CTOPP Composite Scores in Participants With ADHD + Dyslexia [ Time Frame: Baseline, 32 Weeks ]
    The CTOPP assesses phonological awareness, phonological memory, and rapid naming and is appropriate for ages 7 to 24. The test contains six core subtests. The composite scores are 1) Phonological Awareness, comprised of the standard scores of the Elision and Blending Words; 2) Phonological Memory, comprised of standard scores for Memory for Digits and Non-word Repetition; and 3) Rapid Naming, comprised of standard scores for Rapid Digit Naming and Rapid Letter Naming. Standard scores range from 1-20, and composite scores range from 35-165. Higher scores are better and lower scores are poor. LS mean was analyzed using LOCF, fixed-effects ANCOVA models with terms for treatment, gender, baseline, age, treatment*baseline.

  24. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in CTOPP Composite Scores in Participants With ADHD Alone [ Time Frame: Baseline, 32 Weeks ]
    The CTOPP assesses phonological awareness, phonological memory, and rapid naming and is appropriate for ages 7 to 24. The test contains six core subtests. The composite scores are 1) Phonological Awareness, comprised of the standard scores of the Elision and Blending Words; 2) Phonological Memory, comprised of standard scores for Memory for Digits and Non-word Repetition; and 3) Rapid Naming, comprised of standard scores for Rapid Digit Naming and Rapid Letter Naming. Standard scores range from 1-20, and composite scores range from 35-165. Higher scores are better and lower scores are poor. LS mean was analyzed using LOCF, fixed-effects ANCOVA models with terms for treatment, gender, baseline, age, treatment*baseline.

  25. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in GORT-4 in Participants With Dyslexia Alone [ Time Frame: Baseline, 32 Weeks ]
    The GORT-4 is a norm-referenced test of oral reading rate, accuracy, fluency, and comprehension valid for individuals aged 6 to 18 years old. The test has two parallel forms, Form A and Form B, that are administered in an alternating fashion (e.g. Week 0-Form A, Week 16-Form B, Week 32-Form A.) with each containing 14 separate stories and 5 multiple-choice comprehension questions for each story. GORT-4 yields the following scores: rate, accuracy, fluency, comprehension, and overall reading ability. Standard scores range from 1-20. Higher scores indicate better reading skills. Lower scores indicate poor reading skills. LS mean was analyzed using LOCF, fixed-effects ANCOVA models with terms for treatment, gender, baseline, age, treatment*baseline.

  26. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in GORT-4 in Participants With ADHD + Dyslexia [ Time Frame: Baseline, 32 Weeks ]
    The GORT-4 is a norm-referenced test of oral reading rate, accuracy, fluency, and comprehension valid for individuals aged 6 to 18 years old. The test has two parallel forms, Form A and Form B, that are administered in an alternating fashion (e.g. Week 0-Form A, Week 16-Form B, Week 32-Form A.) with each containing 14 separate stories and 5 multiple-choice comprehension questions for each story. GORT-4 yields the following scores: rate, accuracy, fluency, comprehension, and overall reading ability. Standard scores range from 1-20. Higher scores indicate better reading skills. Lower scores indicate poor reading skills. LS mean was analyzed using LOCF, fixed-effects ANCOVA models with terms for treatment, gender, baseline, age, treatment*baseline.

  27. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in GORT-4 in Participants With ADHD Alone [ Time Frame: Baseline, 32 Weeks ]
    The GORT-4 is a norm-referenced test of oral reading rate, accuracy, fluency, and comprehension valid for individuals aged 6 to 18 years old. The test has two parallel forms, Form A and Form B, that are administered in an alternating fashion (e.g. Week 0-Form A, Week 16-Form B, Week 32-Form A.) with each containing 14 separate stories and 5 multiple-choice comprehension questions for each story. GORT-4 yields the following scores: rate, accuracy, fluency, comprehension, and overall reading ability. Standard scores range from 1-20. Higher scores indicate better reading skills. Lower scores indicate poor reading skills. LS mean was analyzed using LOCF, fixed-effects ANCOVA models with terms for treatment, gender, baseline, age, treatment*baseline.

  28. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in Participants in TOWRE Total Score With Dyslexia Alone [ Time Frame: Baseline, 32 Weeks ]
    The TOWRE is a measure of an individual's ability to pronounce printed words accurately and fluently and is appropriate for individuals aged 6 to 24 years old. The TOWRE contains two subtests: Sight Word Efficiency (SWE) which assesses the number of real printed words that can be accurately identified within 45 seconds and Phonemic Decoding Efficiency (PDE) which measures the number of pronounceable printed non-words that can be accurately decoded within 45 seconds. The total standard score ranges from 35-165. Higher scores indicate higher reading proficiency and lower scores indicate lower reading proficiency. LS mean was calculated using a REML-based, MMRM analysis which includes treatment, baseline, visit, treatment-by-visit interaction, and baseline-by-visit interaction.

  29. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in Participants in TOWRE Total Score With ADHD or ADHD + Dyslexia [ Time Frame: Baseline, 32 Weeks ]
    The TOWRE is a measure of an individual's ability to pronounce printed words accurately and fluently and is appropriate for individuals aged 6 to 24 years old. The TOWRE contains two subtests: Sight Word Efficiency (SWE) which assesses the number of real printed words that can be accurately identified within 45 seconds and Phonemic Decoding Efficiency (PDE) which measures the number of pronounceable printed non-words that can be accurately decoded within 45 seconds. The total standard score ranges from 35-165. Higher scores indicate higher reading proficiency and lower scores indicate lower reading proficiency. LS mean was calculated using a REML-based, MMRM analysis which includes treatment, baseline, visit, treatment-by-visit interaction, and baseline-by-visit interaction.

  30. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in Participants in WMTB-C With Dyslexia Alone [ Time Frame: Baseline, 32 Weeks ]
    WMTB-C is assessment of working memory capacities, consisting of 9 subtests (Trials Correct Scores [Range from 55-145], Higher scores are better, Lower scores are poor) reflecting 3 main components of working memory: central executive (CE) control/regulation of working memory (Backward Digit Recall, Listening Recall, Counting Recall); phonological loop (PL) responsible for holding verbal information for short periods (Digit Recall, Word List Matching, Word List Recall, Non-word List Recall); and visuo-spatial sketchpad (VSSP) which holds information in visual and spatial form (Block Recall, Mazes Memory). LS mean was analyzed using LOCF, fixed-effects ANCOVA models with terms for treatment, gender, baseline, age, treatment*baseline.

  31. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in Participants in WMTB-C With ADHD + Dyslexia [ Time Frame: Baseline, 32 Weeks ]
    WMTB-C is assessment of working memory capacities, consisting of 9 subtests (Trials Correct Scores [Range from 55-145], Higher scores are better, Lower scores are poor) reflecting 3 main components of working memory: central executive (CE) control/regulation of working memory (Backward Digit Recall, Listening Recall, Counting Recall); phonological loop (PL) responsible for holding verbal information for short periods (Digit Recall, Word List Matching, Word List Recall, Non-word List Recall); and visuo-spatial sketchpad (VSSP) which holds information in visual and spatial form (Block Recall, Mazes Memory). LS mean was analyzed using LOCF, fixed-effects ANCOVA models with terms for treatment, gender, baseline, age, treatment*baseline.

  32. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in Participants in WMTB-C With ADHD Alone [ Time Frame: Baseline, 32 Weeks ]
    WMTB-C is assessment of working memory capacities, consisting of 9 subtests (Trials Correct Scores [Range from 55-145], Higher scores are better, Lower scores are poor) reflecting 3 main components of working memory: central executive (CE) control/regulation of working memory (Backward Digit Recall, Listening Recall, Counting Recall); phonological loop (PL) responsible for holding verbal information for short periods (Digit Recall, Word List Matching, Word List Recall, Non-word List Recall); and visuo-spatial sketchpad (VSSP) which holds information in visual and spatial form (Block Recall, Mazes Memory). LS mean was analyzed using LOCF, fixed-effects ANCOVA models with terms for treatment, gender, baseline, age, treatment*baseline.

  33. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in BADD-A Total Score in Participants With Dyslexia Alone [ Time Frame: Baseline, 32 Weeks ]
    The BADD-A is used to assess impairment in executive functions related to ADHD. These include 1) Organizing, prioritizing, and activating to work; 2) Focusing, sustaining and shifting attention to tasks; 3) Regulating alertness, sustaining effort, and processing speed; 4) Managing frustration and modulating emotions; 5) Utilizing working memory and accessing recall (Brown 2001). Scores range from 0-120. The higher the score the more severe the ADD. Scores of 0-39 equate to "ADD possible but not likely". Scores of 40-54 equate to "ADD probable but not certain". Scores of 55-120 equate to "ADD highly probable". LS Mean was calculated using ANCOVA model with terms for gender, baseline score, and age.

  34. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in BADD-A Total Score in Participants With ADHD or ADHD + Dyslexia [ Time Frame: Baseline, 32 Weeks ]
    The BADD-A is used to assess impairment in executive functions related to ADHD. These include 1) Organizing, prioritizing, and activating to work; 2) Focusing, sustaining and shifting attention to tasks; 3) Regulating alertness, sustaining effort, and processing speed; 4) Managing frustration and modulating emotions; 5) Utilizing working memory and accessing recall (Brown 2001). Scores range from 0-120. The higher the score the more severe the ADD. Scores of 0-39 equate to "ADD possible but not likely". Scores of 40-54 equate to "ADD probable but not certain". Scores of 55-120 equate to "ADD highly probable". LS Mean was calculated using ANCOVA model with terms for gender, baseline score, and age.

  35. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in ADHDRS-IV-Parent: Inv Total Score in Participants With Dyslexia Alone [ Time Frame: Baseline, 32 Weeks ]
    The ADHDRS-IV-Parent is an 18-item scale with 1 item for each of the 18 symptoms contained in the DSM-IV diagnosis of ADHD. Each item is scored on a 0 to 3 scale: 0=none (never or rarely); 1=mild (sometimes); 2=moderate (often); 3=severe (very often). Total scores range from 0-54. Higher scores indicate higher impairment and lower scores indicate no impairment. LS Mean was calculated using ANCOVA model with terms for gender, baseline score, and age.

  36. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in ADHDRS-IV-Parent: Inv Total Score in Participants With ADHD or ADHD +Dyslexia [ Time Frame: Baseline, 32 Weeks ]
    The ADHDRS-IV-Parent is an 18-item scale with 1 item for each of the 18 symptoms contained in the DSM-IV diagnosis of ADHD. Each item is scored on a 0 to 3 scale: 0=none (never or rarely); 1=mild (sometimes); 2=moderate (often); 3=severe (very often). Total scores range from 0-54. Higher scores indicate higher impairment and lower scores indicate no impairment. LS Mean was calculated using ANCOVA model with terms for gender, baseline score, and age.

  37. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in fMRI Activation in Participants With Dyslexia Alone (Pseudoword Rhyming and Semantic-category Tasks) [ Time Frame: From Week 16, Up to Week 32 ]
    For this trial, Lilly contracted an academic institution to process the fMRI data. However, there are contractual delays limiting the timing, and Lilly will not have access to the processed fMRI data until approximately March 2018.

  38. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in fMRI Activation in Participants With ADHD or ADHD + Dyslexia (Stroop Attention Tasks) [ Time Frame: From Week 16, Up to 32 Weeks ]
    For this trial, Lilly contracted an academic institution to process the fMRI data. However, there are contractual delays limiting the timing, and Lilly will not have access to the processed fMRI data until approximately March 2018.

  39. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in fMRI Activation in Participants With Dyslexia Alone (Stroop Attention Tasks) [ Time Frame: From Week 16, Up to Week 32 ]
    For this trial, Lilly contracted an academic institution to process the fMRI data. However, there are contractual delays limiting the timing, and Lilly will not have access to the processed fMRI data until approximately March 2018.

  40. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in fMRI Activation in Participants With ADHD or ADHD + Dyslexia (Pseudoword Rhyming and Semantic Tasks) [ Time Frame: From Week 16, Up to Week 32 ]
    For this trial, Lilly contracted an academic institution to process the fMRI data. However, there are contractual delays limiting the timing, and Lilly will not have access to the processed fMRI data until approximately March 2018.

  41. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in WJ III Individual Scores in Participants With Dyslexia Alone [ Time Frame: From Week 16, Up to 32 Weeks ]
    WJ III (Woodcock et al. 2001) has two parallel forms (A and B) alternating two batteries of tests—Standard and Extended. Standard tests (1 -12) have a broad set of scores. Extended tests (13 -22) have a more in-depth diagnostic assessment of academic strengths and weaknesses. Tests administered were 1, 2, 7, 9, 13, 17, and 20. The standard score scale is a mean (M) of 100 and a standard deviation (SD) of 15. The WJ III ACH has extended standard scores, which is a greater range of standard scores. Scores for each individual test range from 0 to over 200 where 69 and below is very low and 131 and above is very superior. Higher scores indicate better reading skills. LS mean was analyzed using LOCF, fixed-effects ANCOVA models with terms for treatment, gender, baseline score, age, and baseline score by treatment interaction.

  42. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in WJ III Individual Scores in Participants With ADHD + Dyslexia [ Time Frame: From Week 16, Up to Week 32 ]
    WJ III (Woodcock et al. 2001) has two parallel forms (A and B) alternating two batteries of tests—Standard and Extended. Standard tests (1 -12) have a broad set of scores. Extended tests (13 -22) have a more in-depth diagnostic assessment of academic strengths and weaknesses. Tests administered were 1, 2, 7, 9, 13, 17, and 20. The standard score scale is a mean (M) of 100 and a standard deviation (SD) of 15. The WJ III ACH has extended standard scores, which is a greater range of standard scores. Scores for each individual test range from 0 to over 200 where 69 and below is very low and 131 and above is very superior. Higher scores indicate better reading skills. LS mean was analyzed using LOCF, fixed-effects ANCOVA models with terms for treatment, gender, baseline score, age, and baseline score by treatment interaction.

  43. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in WJ III Individual Scores in Participants With ADHD Alone [ Time Frame: From Week 16, Up to Week 32 ]
    WJ III (Woodcock et al. 2001) has two parallel forms (A and B) alternating two batteries of tests—Standard and Extended. Standard tests (1 -12) have a broad set of scores. Extended tests (13 -22) have a more in-depth diagnostic assessment of academic strengths and weaknesses. Tests administered were 1, 2, 7, 9, 13, 17, and 20. The standard score scale is a mean (M) of 100 and a standard deviation (SD) of 15. The WJ III ACH has extended standard scores, which is a greater range of standard scores. Scores for each individual test range from 0 to over 200 where 69 and below is very low and 131 and above is very superior. Higher scores indicate better reading skills. LS mean was analyzed using LOCF, fixed-effects ANCOVA models with terms for treatment, gender, baseline score, age, and baseline score by treatment interaction.

  44. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in CTOPP Composite Scores in Participants With Dyslexia Alone [ Time Frame: From Week 16, Up to Week 32 ]
    The CTOPP assesses phonological awareness, phonological memory, and rapid naming and is appropriate for ages 7 to 24. The test contains six core subtests. The composite scores are 1) Phonological Awareness, comprised of the standard scores of the Elision and Blending Words; 2) Phonological Memory, comprised of standard scores for Memory for Digits and Non-word Repetition; and 3) Rapid Naming, comprised of standard scores for Rapid Digit Naming and Rapid Letter Naming. Standard scores range from 1-20, and composite scores range from 35-165. Higher scores are better and lower scores are poor. LS mean was analyzed using LOCF, fixed-effects ANCOVA models with terms for treatment, gender, baseline, age, treatment*baseline.

  45. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in CTOPP Composite Scores in Participants With ADHD + Dyslexia [ Time Frame: From Week 16, Up to Week 32 ]
    The CTOPP assesses phonological awareness, phonological memory, and rapid naming and is appropriate for ages 7 to 24. The test contains six core subtests. The composite scores are 1) Phonological Awareness, comprised of the standard scores of the Elision and Blending Words; 2) Phonological Memory, comprised of standard scores for Memory for Digits and Non-word Repetition; and 3) Rapid Naming, comprised of standard scores for Rapid Digit Naming and Rapid Letter Naming. Standard scores range from 1-20, and composite scores range from 35-165. Higher scores are better and lower scores are poor. LS mean was analyzed using LOCF, fixed-effects ANCOVA models with terms for treatment, gender, baseline, age, treatment*baseline.

  46. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in CTOPP Composite Scores in Participants With ADHD Alone [ Time Frame: From Week 16, Up to Week 32 ]
    The CTOPP assesses phonological awareness, phonological memory, and rapid naming and is appropriate for ages 7 to 24. The test contains six core subtests. The composite scores are 1) Phonological Awareness, comprised of the standard scores of the Elision and Blending Words; 2) Phonological Memory, comprised of standard scores for Memory for Digits and Non-word Repetition; and 3) Rapid Naming, comprised of standard scores for Rapid Digit Naming and Rapid Letter Naming. Standard scores range from 1-20, and composite scores range from 35-165. Higher scores are better and lower scores are poor. LS mean was analyzed using LOCF, fixed-effects ANCOVA models with terms for treatment, gender, baseline, age, treatment*baseline.

  47. Change From Baseline to Endpoint TOWRE Total Score in Participants With Dyslexia Alone [ Time Frame: From Week 16, Up to Week 32 ]
    The TOWRE is a measure of an individual's ability to pronounce printed words accurately and fluently and is appropriate for individuals aged 6 to 24 years old. The TOWRE contains two subtests: Sight Word Efficiency (SWE) which assesses the number of real printed words that can be accurately identified within 45 seconds and Phonemic Decoding Efficiency (PDE) which measures the number of pronounceable printed non-words that can be accurately decoded within 45 seconds. The total standard score ranges from 35-165. Higher scores indicate higher reading proficiency and lower scores indicate lower reading proficiency. LS mean was calculated using a REML-based, MMRM analysis which includes treatment, baseline, visit, treatment-by-visit interaction, and baseline-by-visit interaction.

  48. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in TOWRE Total Score in Participants With ADHD or ADHD + Dyslexia [ Time Frame: From Week 16, Up to Week 32 ]
    The TOWRE is a measure of an individual's ability to pronounce printed words accurately and fluently and is appropriate for individuals aged 6 to 24 years old. The TOWRE contains two subtests: Sight Word Efficiency (SWE) which assesses the number of real printed words that can be accurately identified within 45 seconds and Phonemic Decoding Efficiency (PDE) which measures the number of pronounceable printed non-words that can be accurately decoded within 45 seconds. The total standard score ranges from 35-165. Higher scores indicate higher reading proficiency and lower scores indicate lower reading proficiency. LS mean was calculated using a REML-based, MMRM analysis which includes treatment, baseline, visit, treatment-by-visit interaction, and baseline-by-visit interaction.

  49. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in GORT-4 in Participants With Dyslexia Alone [ Time Frame: From Week 16, Up to Week 32 ]
    The GORT-4 is a norm-referenced test of oral reading rate, accuracy, fluency, and comprehension valid for individuals aged 6 to 18 years old. The test has two parallel forms, Form A and Form B, that are administered in an alternating fashion (e.g. Week 0-Form A, Week 16-Form B, Week 32-Form A.) with each containing 14 separate stories and 5 multiple-choice comprehension questions for each story. GORT-4 yields the following scores: rate, accuracy, fluency, comprehension, and overall reading ability. Standard scores range from 1-20. Higher scores indicate better reading skills. Lower scores indicate poor reading skills. LS mean was analyzed using LOCF, fixed-effects ANCOVA models with terms for treatment, gender, baseline, age, treatment*baseline.

  50. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in GORT-4 in Participants With ADHD+ Dyslexia [ Time Frame: From Week 16, Up to Week 32 ]
    The GORT-4 is a norm-referenced test of oral reading rate, accuracy, fluency, and comprehension valid for individuals aged 6 to 18 years old. The test has two parallel forms, Form A and Form B, that are administered in an alternating fashion (e.g. Week 0-Form A, Week 16-Form B, Week 32-Form A.) with each containing 14 separate stories and 5 multiple-choice comprehension questions for each story. GORT-4 yields the following scores: rate, accuracy, fluency, comprehension, and overall reading ability. Standard scores range from 1-20. Higher scores indicate better reading skills. Lower scores indicate poor reading skills. LS mean was analyzed using LOCF, fixed-effects ANCOVA models with terms for treatment, gender, baseline, age, treatment*baseline.

  51. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in GORT-4 in Participants With ADHD Alone [ Time Frame: From Week 16, Up to Week 32 ]
    The GORT-4 is a norm-referenced test of oral reading rate, accuracy, fluency, and comprehension valid for individuals aged 6 to 18 years old. The test has two parallel forms, Form A and Form B, that are administered in an alternating fashion (e.g. Week 0-Form A, Week 16-Form B, Week 32-Form A.) with each containing 14 separate stories and 5 multiple-choice comprehension questions for each story. GORT-4 yields the following scores: rate, accuracy, fluency, comprehension, and overall reading ability. Standard scores range from 1-20. Higher scores indicate better reading skills. Lower scores indicate poor reading skills. LS mean was analyzed using LOCF, fixed-effects ANCOVA models with terms for treatment, gender, baseline, age, treatment*baseline.

  52. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in WMTB-C in Participants With Dyslexia Alone [ Time Frame: From Week 16, Up to Week 32 ]
    WMTB-C is assessment of working memory capacities, consisting of 9 subtests (Trials Correct Scores [Range from 55-145], Higher scores are better, Lower scores are poor) reflecting 3 main components of working memory: central executive (CE) control/regulation of working memory (Backward Digit Recall, Listening Recall, Counting Recall); phonological loop (PL) responsible for holding verbal information for short periods (Digit Recall, Word List Matching, Word List Recall, Non-word List Recall); and visuo-spatial sketchpad (VSSP) which holds information in visual and spatial form (Block Recall, Mazes Memory). LS mean was analyzed using LOCF, fixed-effects ANCOVA models with terms for treatment, gender, baseline, age, treatment*baseline.

  53. Change From Baseline to Endpoint WMTB-C in Participants With ADHD + Dyslexia [ Time Frame: From Week 16, Up to Week 32 ]
    WMTB-C is assessment of working memory capacities, consisting of 9 subtests (Trials Correct Scores [Range from 55-145], Higher scores are better, Lower scores are poor) reflecting 3 main components of working memory: central executive (CE) control/regulation of working memory (Backward Digit Recall, Listening Recall, Counting Recall); phonological loop (PL) responsible for holding verbal information for short periods (Digit Recall, Word List Matching, Word List Recall, Non-word List Recall); and visuo-spatial sketchpad (VSSP) which holds information in visual and spatial form (Block Recall, Mazes Memory). LS mean was analyzed using LOCF, fixed-effects ANCOVA models with terms for treatment, gender, baseline, age, treatment*baseline.

  54. Change From Baseline to Endpoint WMTB-C in Participants With ADHD Alone [ Time Frame: From Week 16, Up to Week 32 ]
    WMTB-C is assessment of working memory capacities, consisting of 9 subtests (Trials Correct Scores [Range from 55-145], Higher scores are better, Lower scores are poor) reflecting 3 main components of working memory: central executive (CE) control/regulation of working memory (Backward Digit Recall, Listening Recall, Counting Recall); phonological loop (PL) responsible for holding verbal information for short periods (Digit Recall, Word List Matching, Word List Recall, Non-word List Recall); and visuo-spatial sketchpad (VSSP) which holds information in visual and spatial form (Block Recall, Mazes Memory). LS mean was analyzed using LOCF, fixed-effects ANCOVA models with terms for treatment, gender, baseline, age, treatment*baseline.

  55. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in BADD-A Total Score in Participants With Dyslexia Alone [ Time Frame: From Week 16, Up to Week 32 ]
    The BADD-A is used to assess impairment in executive functions related to ADHD. These include 1) Organizing, prioritizing, and activating to work; 2) Focusing, sustaining and shifting attention to tasks; 3) Regulating alertness, sustaining effort, and processing speed; 4) Managing frustration and modulating emotions; 5) Utilizing working memory and accessing recall (Brown 2001). Scores range from 0-120. The higher the score the more severe the ADD. Scores of 0-39 equate to "ADD possible but not likely". Scores of 40-54 equate to "ADD probable but not certain". Scores of 55-120 equate to "ADD highly probable". LS mean was calculated using a REML-based, MMRM analysis which includes treatment, baseline, visit, treatment-by-visit interaction, and baseline-by-visit interaction.

  56. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in BADD-A Total Score in Participants With ADHD or ADHD + Dyslexia [ Time Frame: From Week 16, Up to Week 32 ]
    The BADD-A is used to assess impairment in executive functions related to ADHD. These include 1) Organizing, prioritizing, and activating to work; 2) Focusing, sustaining and shifting attention to tasks; 3) Regulating alertness, sustaining effort, and processing speed; 4) Managing frustration and modulating emotions; 5) Utilizing working memory and accessing recall (Brown 2001). Scores range from 0-120. The higher the score the more severe the ADD. Scores of 0-39 equate to "ADD possible but not likely". Scores of 40-54 equate to "ADD probable but not certain". Scores of 55-120 equate to "ADD highly probable". LS mean was calculated using a REML-based, MMRM analysis which includes treatment, baseline, visit, treatment-by-visit interaction, and baseline-by-visit interaction.

  57. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in ADHDRS-IV Total Score in Participants With Dyslexia Alone [ Time Frame: From Week 16, Up to Week 32 ]
    The ADHDRS-IV-Parent is an 18-item scale with 1 item for each of the 18 symptoms contained in the DSM-IV diagnosis of ADHD. Each item is scored on a 0 to 3 scale: 0=none (never or rarely); 1=mild (sometimes); 2=moderate (often); 3=severe (very often). Total scores range from 0-54. Higher scores indicate higher impairment and lower scores indicate no impairment. LS mean was calculated using a REML-based, MMRM analysis which includes treatment, baseline, visit, treatment-by-visit interaction, and baseline-by-visit interaction.

  58. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in ADHDRS-IV-Parent: Inv Total Score in Participants With ADHD or ADHD + Dyslexia [ Time Frame: From Week 16, Up to Week 32 ]
    The ADHDRS-IV-Parent is an 18-item scale with 1 item for each of the 18 symptoms contained in the DSM-IV diagnosis of ADHD. Each item is scored on a 0 to 3 scale: 0=none (never or rarely); 1=mild (sometimes); 2=moderate (often); 3=severe (very often). Total scores range from 0-54. Higher scores indicate higher impairment and lower scores indicate no impairment. LS mean was calculated using a REML-based, MMRM analysis which includes treatment, baseline, visit, treatment-by-visit interaction, and baseline-by-visit interaction.

  59. The Number of Participants With Treatment Emergent Adverse Events (TEAE) in Participants With Dyslexia [ Time Frame: 16 Weeks ]
    The number of participants who experienced one or more treatment emergent adverse events (TEAEs) and who had Dyslexia A summary of other non-serious adverse events and all serious adverse events, regardless of causality, is located in the Reported Adverse Events Section.

  60. The Number of Participants With TEAE in Participants With ADHD or ADHD+Dyslexia. [ Time Frame: 16 Weeks ]
    The number of participants who experienced one or more TEAEs and who had ADHD and ADHD+Dyslexia. A summary of other non-serious adverse events and all serious adverse events, regardless of causality, is located in the Reported Adverse Events Section.

  61. The Number of Participants With TEAE in Participants With Dyslexia [ Time Frame: From 16 Weeks Up to Week 32 ]
    The number of participants with at least one TEAE and had Dyslexia. A summary of other non-serious adverse events and all serious adverse events, regardless of causality, is located in the Reported Adverse Events Section.

  62. The Number of Participants With TEAE in Participants With ADHD or ADHD+Dyslexia. [ Time Frame: From Week 16 Up to Week 32 ]
    The number of participants who experienced one or more TEAEs with ADHD and ADHD + Dyslexia. A summary of other non-serious adverse events and all serious adverse events, regardless of causality, is located in the Reported Adverse Events Section.

  63. Number of Participants With Adverse Events [ Time Frame: 32 Weeks ]
    Number of participants who had at least one adverse event. A summary of other non-serious adverse events and all serious adverse events, regardless of causality, is located in the Reported Adverse Events Section.

  64. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in WJ III Individual Scores in Healthy Participants [ Time Frame: Baseline, 16 Weeks ]
    WJ III (Woodcock et al. 2001) has two parallel forms (A and B) alternating two batteries of tests—Standard and Extended. Standard tests (1 -12) have a broad set of scores. Extended tests (13 -22) have a more in-depth diagnostic assessment of academic strengths and weaknesses. Tests administered were 1, 2, 7, 9, 13, 17, and 20. The standard score scale is a mean (M) of 100 and a standard deviation (SD) of 15. The WJ III ACH has extended standard scores, which is a greater range of standard scores. Scores for each individual test range from 0 to over 200 where 69 and below is very low and 131 and above is very superior. Higher scores indicate better reading skills.

  65. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in CTOPP Composite Scores in Healthy Participants [ Time Frame: Baseline, 16 Weeks ]
    The CTOPP assesses phonological awareness, phonological memory, and rapid naming and is appropriate for ages 7 to 24. The test contains six core subtests. The composite scores are 1) Phonological Awareness, comprised of the standard scores of the Elision and Blending Words; 2) Phonological Memory, comprised of standard scores for Memory for Digits and Non-word Repetition; and 3) Rapid Naming, comprised of standard scores for Rapid Digit Naming and Rapid Letter Naming. Standard scores range from 1-20, and composite scores range from 35-165. Higher scores are better and lower scores are poor.

  66. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in GORT-4 in Healthy Participants [ Time Frame: Baseline, 16 weeks ]
    The GORT-4 is a norm-referenced test of oral reading rate, accuracy, fluency, and comprehension valid for individuals aged 6 to 18 years old. The test has two parallel forms, Form A and Form B, that are administered in an alternating fashion (e.g. Week 0-Form A, Week 16-Form B, Week 32-Form A.) with each containing 14 separate stories and 5 multiple-choice comprehension questions for each story. GORT-4 yields the following scores: rate, accuracy, fluency, comprehension, and overall reading ability. Standard scores range from 1-20. Higher scores indicate better reading skills. Lower scores indicate poor reading skills.

  67. Change From Baseline to Endpoint TOWRE Total Score in Healthy Participants [ Time Frame: Baseline, 16 Weeks ]
    The TOWRE is a measure of an individual's ability to pronounce printed words accurately and fluently and is appropriate for individuals aged 6 to 24 years old. The TOWRE contains two subtests: Sight Word Efficiency (SWE) which assesses the number of real printed words that can be accurately identified within 45 seconds and Phonemic Decoding Efficiency (PDE) which measures the number of pronounceable printed non-words that can be accurately decoded within 45 seconds. The total standard score ranges from 35-165. Higher scores indicate higher reading proficiency and lower scores indicate lower reading proficiency. LS mean was calculated using a REML-based, MMRM analyses which includes diagnostic group, visit, and diagnostic group-by-visit interaction.

  68. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in WMTB-C in Healthy Participants [ Time Frame: Baseline, 16 Weeks ]
    WMTB-C is assessment of working memory capacities, consisting of 9 subtests (Trials Correct Scores [Range from 55-145], Higher scores are better, Lower scores are poor) reflecting 3 main components of working memory: central executive (CE) control/regulation of working memory (Backward Digit Recall, Listening Recall, Counting Recall); phonological loop (PL) responsible for holding verbal information for short periods (Digit Recall, Word List Matching, Word List Recall, Non-word List Recall); and visuo-spatial sketchpad (VSSP) which holds information in visual and spatial form (Block Recall, Mazes Memory).

  69. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in BADD-A Total Score in Healthy Participants [ Time Frame: Baseline, 16 Weeks ]
    The BADD-A is used to assess impairment in executive functions related to ADHD. These include 1) Organizing, prioritizing, and activating to work; 2) Focusing, sustaining and shifting attention to tasks; 3) Regulating alertness, sustaining effort, and processing speed; 4) Managing frustration and modulating emotions; 5) Utilizing working memory and accessing recall (Brown 2001). Scores range from 0-120. The higher the score the more severe the ADD. Scores of 0-39 equate to "ADD possible but not likely". Scores of 40-54 equate to "ADD probable but not certain". Scores of 55-120 equate to "ADD highly probable". LS mean was calculated using a REML-based, MMRM analysis which includes the effects of diagnostic group, visit, and diagnostic group-by-visit interaction.

  70. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in ADHDRS-IV Total Score in Healthy Participants [ Time Frame: Baseline, 16 Weeks ]
    The ADHDRS-IV-Parent is an 18-item scale with 1 item for each of the 18 symptoms contained in the DSM-IV diagnosis of ADHD. Each item is scored on a 0 to 3 scale: 0=none (never or rarely); 1=mild (sometimes); 2=moderate (often); 3=severe (very often). Total scores range from 0-54. Higher scores indicate higher impairment and lower scores indicate no impairment. LS mean was calculated using a REML-based, MMRM analysis which includes diagnostic group, visit, and diagnostic group-by-visit interaction.

  71. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in WJ III Individual Scores in Healthy Participants [ Time Frame: Baseline, 32 Weeks ]
    WJ III (Woodcock et al. 2001) has two parallel forms (A and B) alternating two batteries of tests—Standard and Extended. Standard tests (1 -12) have a broad set of scores. Extended tests (13 -22) have a more in-depth diagnostic assessment of academic strengths and weaknesses. Tests administered were 1, 2, 7, 9, 13, 17, and 20. The standard score scale is a mean (M) of 100 and a standard deviation (SD) of 15. The WJ III ACH has extended standard scores, which is a greater range of standard scores. Scores for each individual test range from 0 to over 200 where 69 and below is very low and 131 and above is very superior. Higher scores indicate better reading skills.

  72. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in CTOPP Composite Scores in Healthy Participants [ Time Frame: Baseline, 32 weeks ]
    The CTOPP assesses phonological awareness, phonological memory, and rapid naming and is appropriate for ages 7 to 24. The test contains six core subtests. The composite scores are 1) Phonological Awareness, comprised of the standard scores of the Elision and Blending Words; 2) Phonological Memory, comprised of standard scores for Memory for Digits and Non-word Repetition; and 3) Rapid Naming, comprised of standard scores for Rapid Digit Naming and Rapid Letter Naming. Standard scores range from 1-20, and composite scores range from 35-165. Higher scores are better and lower scores are poor.

  73. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in GORT-4 in Healthy Participants [ Time Frame: Baseline, 32 Weeks ]
    The GORT-4 is a norm-referenced test of oral reading rate, accuracy, fluency, and comprehension valid for individuals aged 6 to 18 years old. The test has two parallel forms, Form A and Form B, that are administered in an alternating fashion (e.g. Week 0-Form A, Week 16-Form B, Week 32-Form A.) with each containing 14 separate stories and 5 multiple-choice comprehension questions for each story. GORT-4 yields the following scores: rate, accuracy, fluency, comprehension, and overall reading ability. Standard scores range from 1-20. Higher scores indicate better reading skills. Lower scores indicate poor reading skills.

  74. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in TOWRE Total Score in Healthy Participants [ Time Frame: Baseline, 32 Weeks ]
    The TOWRE is a measure of an individual's ability to pronounce printed words accurately and fluently and is appropriate for individuals aged 6 to 24 years old. The TOWRE contains two subtests: Sight Word Efficiency (SWE) which assesses the number of real printed words that can be accurately identified within 45 seconds and Phonemic Decoding Efficiency (PDE) which measures the number of pronounceable printed non-words that can be accurately decoded within 45 seconds. The total standard score ranges from 35-165. Higher scores indicate higher reading proficiency and lower scores indicate lower reading proficiency. LS mean was calculated using a REML-based, MMRM analysis which includes diagnostic group, visit, and diagnostic group-by-visit interaction.

  75. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in WMTB-C in Healthy Participants [ Time Frame: Baseline, 32 Weeks ]
    WMTB-C is assessment of working memory capacities, consisting of 9 subtests (Trials Correct Scores [Range from 55-145], Higher scores are better, Lower scores are poor) reflecting 3 main components of working memory: central executive (CE) control/regulation of working memory (Backward Digit Recall, Listening Recall, Counting Recall); phonological loop (PL) responsible for holding verbal information for short periods (Digit Recall, Word List Matching, Word List Recall, Non-word List Recall); and visuo-spatial sketchpad (VSSP) which holds information in visual and spatial form (Block Recall, Mazes Memory).

  76. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in BADD-A Total Score in Healthy Participants [ Time Frame: Baseline, 32 Weeks ]
    The BADD-A is used to assess impairment in executive functions related to ADHD. These include 1) Organizing, prioritizing, and activating to work; 2) Focusing, sustaining and shifting attention to tasks; 3) Regulating alertness, sustaining effort, and processing speed; 4) Managing frustration and modulating emotions; 5) Utilizing working memory and accessing recall (Brown 2001). Scores range from 0-120. The higher the score the more severe the ADD. Scores of 0-39 equate to "ADD possible but not likely". Scores of 40-54 equate to "ADD probable but not certain". Scores of 55-120 equate to "ADD highly probable". LS mean was calculated using a REML-based, MMRM which includes the effects of diagnostic group, visit, diagnostic group-by-visit interaction.

  77. Change From Baseline to Endpoint in ADHDRS-IV-Parent: Inv Total Score in Healthy Participants [ Time Frame: Baseline, 32 Weeks ]
    The ADHDRS-IV-Parent is an 18-item scale with 1 item for each of the 18 symptoms contained in the DSM-IV diagnosis of ADHD. Each item is scored on a 0 to 3 scale: 0=none (never or rarely); 1=mild (sometimes); 2=moderate (often); 3=severe (very often). Total scores range from 0-54. Higher scores indicate higher impairment and lower scores indicate no impairment. LS mean was calculated using a REML-based, MMRM analysis which includes the effects of diagnostic group, visit, diagnostic group-by-visit interaction.



Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.


Ages Eligible for Study:   10 Years to 16 Years   (Child)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Participants in the ADHD-only or ADHD+dyslexia groups must meet DSM-IV-TR criteria for ADHD
  • Participants in the dyslexia-alone group or ADHD+dyslexia groups must meet criteria for dyslexia
  • Participants must achieve a score of 80 or more on the Full Scale Intelligence Quotient
  • Child or adolescent participants must be 10 to 16 years old
  • Must be able to communicate in English
  • Must be able to swallow capsules
  • Be reliable to keep appointments for clinic visits & all related tests
  • Participants for healthy control group do not meet DSM-IV-TR criteria for ADHD and/or dyslexia
  • Participants for healthy control group must achieve a score of at least 80 but not >120 on the Full Scale Intelligence Quotient

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Participants who weigh less than 25.1 kilogram (kg) or greater than 70 kg.
  • Participants with severe allergies to more than 1 class of medications or who have had multiple adverse drug reactions
  • Participants with prior diagnosis of bipolar I or bipolar II disorder or psychosis
  • Participants with documented history of autism, Asperger's syndrome, or pervasive developmental disorder
  • Females who are pregnant or breastfeeding
  • Participants treated with atomoxetine at a therapeutic dose (1.2 mg/kg/day) for at least 4 to 6 weeks

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT00716274


Locations
United States, Connecticut
Yale University School of Medicine
New Haven, Connecticut, United States, 06520
Sponsors and Collaborators
Eli Lilly and Company
Investigators
Study Director: Call 1-877-CTLILLY (1-877-285-4559) or 1-317-615-4559 Mon - Fri 9 AM - 5 PM Eastern time (UTC/GMT - 5 hours, EST) Eli Lilly and Company

Additional Information:
Responsible Party: Eli Lilly and Company
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00716274     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 12212
B4Z-US-LYEI ( Other Identifier: Eli Lilly and Company )
First Posted: July 16, 2008    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: February 7, 2018
Last Update Posted: February 7, 2018
Last Verified: November 2017

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Dyslexia
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity
Hyperkinesis
Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders
Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Mental Disorders
Dyskinesias
Neurologic Manifestations
Nervous System Diseases
Signs and Symptoms
Language Disorders
Communication Disorders
Neurobehavioral Manifestations
Learning Disorders
Atomoxetine Hydrochloride
Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors
Neurotransmitter Uptake Inhibitors
Membrane Transport Modulators
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Adrenergic Agents
Neurotransmitter Agents
Physiological Effects of Drugs