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GIP, GLP-1 and GLP-2 in Type 2 Diabetic Hyperglucagonemia

This study has been completed.
University of Copenhagen
The Danish Medical Research Council
The Danish Diabetes Association
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Asger Lund, Herlev Hospital Identifier:
First received: July 10, 2008
Last updated: November 27, 2013
Last verified: April 2009
In order to investigate the mechanisms underlying the hyperglucagonemia characterizing patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) we wish to test the following hypothesis: Do pancreatic alpha-cells exhibit inappropriate glucagon responses to substances released from the small intestine (GIP, GLP-2 and GLP-2) in patients with T2DM?

Condition Intervention
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Biological: Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2)

Study Type: Observational
Study Design: Observational Model: Case-Only
Time Perspective: Cross-Sectional
Official Title: The Role of GIP, GLP-1 and GLP-2 in Type 2 Diabetic Hyperglucagonemia

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by Herlev Hospital:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Plasma glucagon responses [ Time Frame: 3 hours ]

Biospecimen Retention:   Samples With DNA
Blood plasma and leucocytes

Enrollment: 10
Study Start Date: July 2008
Study Completion Date: July 2009
Primary Completion Date: July 2009 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Groups/Cohorts Assigned Interventions
Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
Biological: Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2)

Day A: Oral glucose tolerance test (50g glucose)

Day B: Isoglycemic intravenous (iv) glucose infusion

Day C: Isoglycemic iv glucose infusion + iv GIP infusion (0-20 min: 4 pmol/kg body weight/min; 20-50 min: 2 pmol/kg body weight/min)

Day D: Isoglycemic iv glucose infusion + iv GLP-1 infusion (0-20 min: 0,6 pmol/kg body weight/min; 20-50 min: 0,3 pmol/kg body weight/min)

Day E: Isoglycemic iv glucose infusion + iv GLP-2 infusion (0-20 min: 1 pmol/kg body weight/min; 20-50 min: 0,5 pmol/kg body wight/min)

Day F: Isoglycemic iv glucose infusion + iv infusion of GIP, GLP-1 and GLP-2 in doses as Day C, D and E.

Other Names:
  • Human GIP (glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide)
  • Human GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide-1)
  • Human GLP-2 (glucagon-like peptide-2)

Detailed Description:

Patients with T2DM are not able to suppress their secretion of glucagon after a meal or after oral ingestion of glucose. Patients actually respond with pathological high plasmaglucagon concentrations to these stimuli. Previous studies have shown that postprandial hyperglucagonemia results in increased hepatic glucose production and therefore contributes significantly to the hyperglycemia characterizing these patients.

Recently we have shown that patients with T2DM exhibit a normal suppression of glucagon secretion following an adjustable intravenous (iv) glucose challenge mimicking the glucose excursion following a 50-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with the latter resulting in lack of glucagon suppression. Why this difference? A possible explanation could be that the oral administration stimulates intestinal factors resulting in a differentially glucagon response to the two similar glucose excursions. We wish to establish whether GIP, GLP-1 and/or GLP-2 are responsible for the inappropriate glucagon suppression following OGTT and meals in patients with T2DM.


Ages Eligible for Study:   35 Years and older   (Adult, Senior)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Sampling Method:   Non-Probability Sample
Study Population
The patients will be recruted from the outpatient clinic of Department of Endocrinology, Herlev Hospital.

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Caucasians with diet and/or tablet treated T2DM of at least 3 months duration (diagnosed according to the criterias of the World Health Organization (WHO))
  • Normal Hemoglobin
  • Prior Informed Consent

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Liver disease (ALAT/ASAT > 2 x upper normal value)
  • Diabetic nephropathy (se-creatinin > 130 um and/or albuminuria
  • Treatment with drugs that cannot be discontinued for 12 hours
  Contacts and Locations
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Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT00716170

Department of Endocrinology J, Herlev Hospital
Herlev, Denmark, 2730
Sponsors and Collaborators
Herlev Hospital
University of Copenhagen
The Danish Medical Research Council
The Danish Diabetes Association
Study Chair: Tina Vilsbøll, MD DMSc Herlev Hospital
Study Director: Filip K Knop, MD PhD Gentofte Hospital
  More Information


Responsible Party: Asger Lund, MD, Herlev Hospital Identifier: NCT00716170     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 1301831410
Study First Received: July 10, 2008
Last Updated: November 27, 2013

Keywords provided by Herlev Hospital:
Diabetes Mellitus
Incretin hormones
Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide
Glucagon-like peptide-1
Glucagon-like peptide-2

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
Glucose Metabolism Disorders
Metabolic Diseases
Endocrine System Diseases
Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide
Glucagon-Like Peptide 1
Gastrointestinal Agents
Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Incretins processed this record on April 28, 2017