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Efficacy of Pioglitazone on Bone Metabolism in Postmenopausal Women With Impaired Fasting Glucose.

This study has been completed.
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Takeda Identifier:
First received: June 27, 2008
Last updated: January 3, 2012
Last verified: January 2012
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of pioglitazone on bone metabolism in postmenopausal women with impaired fasting glucose.

Condition Intervention Phase
Bone Metabolism
Drug: Pioglitazone
Drug: Placebo
Phase 4

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Double Blind (Participant, Investigator)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Phase 4, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study to Evaluate the Effect of Pioglitazone Compared to Placebo on Bone Metabolism in Impaired Fasting Glucose, Postmenopausal Women for One Year of Treatment

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by Takeda:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Percent Change From Baseline to Month 12 in Bone Mineral Density in the Total Proximal Femur by Dual-Energy-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA) [ Time Frame: Baseline and Month 12. ]
    The change in bone mineral density in the total proximal femur at month 12 relative to baseline. DXA is a means of measuring BMD through x-ray.

Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Percent Change From Month 12 to Month 18 in Bone Mineral Density in the Total Proximal Femur by DXA [ Time Frame: Month 12 and Month 18. ]
    The change in bone mineral density in the total proximal femur at month 18 relative to month 12. DXA is a means of measuring BMD through x-ray.

Enrollment: 156
Study Start Date: May 2008
Study Completion Date: February 2011
Primary Completion Date: January 2011 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: Pioglitazone Drug: Pioglitazone
Pioglitazone 30 mg, tablets, orally, once daily for 4 weeks, then increased to Pioglitazone 45 mg, tablets, orally, once daily for up to 48 weeks.
Other Name: ACTOS®
Placebo Comparator: Placebo Drug: Placebo
Pioglitazone placebo-matching tablets, orally, once daily for up to 52 weeks.
Other Name: ACTOS®

Detailed Description:

The World Health Organization has estimated that 30% of all women aged over 50 years (postmenopausal) have osteoporosis according to a definition of Bone Mineral Density at any site being more than 2.5 standard deviations below the mean for young healthy adult women.

A known risk factor for development of osteoporosis and fracture is diabetes mellitus, with correlations to duration of disease and poor glycemic control.

Pioglitazone is a thiazolidinedione developed by Takeda Pharmaceuticals for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Preclinical studies to date on the bone effects of thiazolidinediones have not clearly identified a mechanism of bone loss. While there is evidence of increased bone fractures in postmenopausal diabetic females treated with a thiazolidinedione, the mechanism is not known. Initial studies with thiazolidinediones in humans have focused on short term exposure (12 to 14 weeks) and non-diabetic females. These studies have shown acute changes in circulating bone markers and bone density, but have been questioned because they may not represent bone metabolism in states of abnormal glucose metabolism. Impaired glucose tolerance has been identified not only as a risk factor for developing type 2 diabetes, but also at higher risk for known complications of diabetes. Examination of the effect of thiazolidinediones on bone metabolism in IGT patients will provide data in patients with abnormal glucose tolerance, but without the potential confounding effects of oral hypoglycemic medications to treat type 2 diabetes.

The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of pioglitazone on bone mass and metabolism in postmenopausal women with impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance. Total participation time in this study is approximately 1 year and six months.


Ages Eligible for Study:   up to 70 Years   (Child, Adult, Senior)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   Female
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Is female and has not experienced menses for at least 5 years.
  • Has a Fasting Plasma Glucose level greater than or equal to 100 and less than 126 mg/dL or a 2-hour post-oral glucose tolerance test greater than or equal to 140 and less than or equal to 199 mg/dL at Screening.
  • Has a body mass index greater than or equal to 16 and less than or equal to 40 kg/m2 and weighs less than 300 pounds (approximately 136 kilograms).
  • Agrees to take daily supplements of Vitamin D (a minimum of 800 IU daily) and calcium (a minimum of 1000 mg daily) during the treatment and wash-out periods.
  • Has clinical laboratory evaluations (including clinical chemistry, hematology, and complete urinalysis [fasted for at least 8 hours]) within the reference range for the testing laboratory unless the results are deemed not clinically significant by the investigator or sponsor.
  • Is in good health as determined by the physician (ie, via medical history and physical examination) at Screening.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Has a fasting triglyceride level greater than 500 mg/dL.
  • Has a hemoglobinopathy causing anemia or interfering with glycosylated hemoglobin assays.
  • Has an alanine transaminase level greater than or equal to 2.5 times the upper limit of normal, active liver disease or jaundice.
  • Has Vitamin D (25-OH-D) less than 20 ng/mL.
  • Has Baseline Bone Mineral Density defined as a T-score less than -2.0 at the total hip, spine, or femoral neck based on Caucasian reference values.
  • Has unexplained microscopic or macroscopic hematuria confirmed by repeat testing.
  • Has any of the following disorders:

    • Rheumatoid Arthritis
    • Thyroid (uncontrolled on thyroid replacement therapy), parathyroid, pituitary, nutritional, inflammatory, gastrointestinal, autoimmune, or renal or other disease known to affect bone metabolism.
    • A personal history of kidney stones.
  • Has a clinical history after age 45 of wrist, hip, or leg fractures.
  • Has a history of more than 1 asymptomatic vertebral deformity or any vertebral deformity attributed to osteoporosis.
  • Has a known history of drug abuse (defined as illicit drug use) or a known history of alcohol abuse within 2 years of Screening.
  • Has signs and/or symptoms of heart failure.
  • Is currently participating in another investigational study or has participated in an investigational study within the past 30 days or 5 half lives of the investigational product, whichever is longer.
  • Has any other serious disease or condition at screening or at randomization that might make it difficult to successfully manage and follow up with the subject according to the protocol.
  • Has a history of cancer, other than basal cell carcinoma or Stage 1 squamous cell carcinoma of the skin that has not been in remission for at least 5 years prior to the first dose of study drug.
  • Has a history of breast cancer.
  • Is taking or has ever taken pioglitazone or other Thiazolidinediones.
  • Has received or donated blood or blood products within 30 days preceding the Screening visit or plans to donate blood during the study.
  Contacts and Locations
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Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT00708175

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Sponsors and Collaborators
Study Director: VP Clinical Science Strategy Takeda
  More Information

Additional Information:
Publications automatically indexed to this study by Identifier (NCT Number):
Responsible Party: Takeda Identifier: NCT00708175     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: AD-4833_402
U1111-1115-0660 ( Registry Identifier: WHO )
Study First Received: June 27, 2008
Results First Received: January 3, 2012
Last Updated: January 3, 2012

Keywords provided by Takeda:
Glucose Metabolism Disorder
Dysmetabolic Syndrome
Type II Diabetes
Diabetes Mellitus

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Hypoglycemic Agents
Physiological Effects of Drugs processed this record on April 28, 2017