The Effect of Balance Training on Unloading Reaction in Individuals With Functional Ankle Instability
The aim of this study is to determine the effect of a balance training intervention on the change in hyper-reactivity to unloading reaction, ankle joint laxity, ankle joint proprioception and evertor muscle weakness in individuals with functional ankle instability (FAI) using quantitative biomechanical and neuromuscular measurements.
We hypothesize that experimental FAI group will demonstrate a significant decline in unloading reaction following balance training while FAI control group will not show a significant decline in unloading reaction without training. We further hypothesize that experimental FAI group will demonstrate a significant improvement in the FAI score after the balance training measured by Ankle Instability questionnaire. Following balance training, there will be a significant correlation between the change in FAI score and change in the unloading reaction in the experimental group.
|Study Design:||Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Single Blind (Subject)
|Official Title:||The Effect of Balance Training on Unloading Reaction in Individuals With Functional Ankle Instability|
- Vertical force variation [ Time Frame: 6 weeks ]
- ankle inversion flexibility, ankle proprioception, ankle evertor strength, modified cumberland ankle instability tool questionnaire [ Time Frame: 6 weeks ]
|Study Start Date:||June 2008|
|Study Completion Date:||May 2009|
|Primary Completion Date:||May 2009 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Balance Training, 3 times a week for 4 weeks
Behavioral: Balance Training
balance training three days per week for 4 weeks during single limb standing
No Intervention: 2
Conflicting results have been reported regarding the effect of ankle sprain on the proprioceptive sensation of the ankle, peroneal muscle strength and ankle joint laxity in the past research studies related to FAI. In spite of controversies regarding etiological factors for FAI, balance training has been widely used in sports medicine clinics to treat FAI. Most of these studies have focused on the identification of postural control deficits in patients with FAI rather than trying to understand the mechanism of balance training on etiological factors of FAI.
Hyper-reactivity of the ankle joint with FAI may be an important factor for the ankle "giving way" episode. Patients may develop injury-induced hyper-reactivity for unloading reaction through an adaptation to physical conditions of the ankle joint after injury. Clinical studies performed with selective nerve blocks along with electrophysiology studies performed in animals have led to the generally accepted conclusion that enhanced pain induced by peripheral nerve injury is associated with increased spontaneous and evoked discharges from injured and/or adjacent uninjured nerves. Persistent primary afferent inputs are believed to cause a state of central (i.e. "spinal") sensitization and enhancing responses to sensory inputs i.e. hyper-reactivity.
The ankle "giving way" is a complex phenomenon where any mechanical and neuromuscular factor or a combination of mechanical and neuromuscular factors may be at fault including ankle hyper-reactivity, joint laxity, proprioceptive deficit, and muscle weakness. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of balance training intervention on the various etiological factors of FAI and to develop an objective measurement for physiological features related to FAI.
The study will help us to understand the mechanism of balance training on FAI and help us to determine the scope and limitations of balance training on FAI subjects in clinical settings to evaluate treatment efficacy.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00703456
|United States, Kansas|
|University of Kansas Medical Center|
|Kansas City, Kansas, United States, 66160|
|Principal Investigator:||Wen Liu||University of Kansas Medical Center|