Bone Adaptation to Impact Loading

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT00697957
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : June 16, 2008
Last Update Posted : June 16, 2008
Oulu Deaconess Institute
UKK Institute
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health
The Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation (TEKES)
Newtest Ltd
CCC Group Ltd.
Fastrax Ltd.
Information provided by:
University of Oulu

Brief Summary:

Ageing populations have made osteoporosis and fragility fractures a major public health concern worldwide. Half of all women and 30% of all men will suffer a fracture related to osteoporosis during their lifetime. While medical prevention of this immense problem is impossible at population level, it is necessary to find efficient preventive strategies. Exercise is one of the major prevention approaches because one reason behind the increasing burden of osteoporosis is the modern sedentary lifestyle. However, the optimal type, intensity, frequency, and duration of exercise that best enhances skeletal integrity are still largely unknown.

We conducted a 12-month population-based randomized controlled exercise intervention in 120 premenopausal women. The aim was to investigate the effect of impact exercise on bone mineral density, geometry and metabolism in healthy women with the intention of assessing the intensity and amount of impact loading with a novel accelerometer-based measurement device. Training effects on risk factors of osteoporotic fractures, physical performance and risk factors of cardiovascular diseases were also evaluated.

This study demonstrated that 12 months of regular impact exercise favoured bone formation, increased bone mineral density in weight-bearing bones, especially at the hip, and led to geometric adaptations by increasing periosteal circumference. Bone adaptations had a dose- and intensity-dependent relationship with measured impact loading. Changes in proximal femur were threshold-dependent, indicating the importance of high impacts exceeding acceleration of 4 g as an osteogenic stimulus. The number of impacts needed to achieve this stimulation was 60 per day. Impact exercise also had a favourable effect on physical performance and cardiorespiratory risk factors by increasing maximal oxygen uptake, dynamic leg strength and decreasing low-density lipoproteins and waist circumference. Changes were dose-dependent with impact loading at wide intensity range.

Bone adapts to impact loading through various mechanisms to ensure optimal bone strength. The number of impacts needed to achieve bone stimulation appeared to be 60 per day, comparable to the same number of daily jumps. If done on a regular basis, impact exercise may be an efficient and safe way of preventing osteoporosis.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Osteoporosis Behavioral: Exercise Not Applicable

Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 120 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Single (Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Prevention
Official Title: Bone Adaptation to Impact Loading - Significance of Loading Intensity
Study Start Date : May 2002
Actual Primary Completion Date : June 2003
Actual Study Completion Date : June 2003

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

Arm Intervention/treatment
No Intervention: 2
Control group
Experimental: 1
Behavioral: Exercise
Progressive impact exercise

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. bone mineral density [ Time Frame: 0 and 12 months ]

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. muscle strength [ Time Frame: 0 and 12 months ]

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   35 Years to 40 Years   (Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   Female
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Random population-based sample of women:

    • Age 35-40 yr
    • residing in the city of Oulu, Finland
    • in March 2002

Exclusion Criteria:

  • cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, respiratory, or other chronic diseases that might limit training and testing
  • diseases or medication affecting the bone
  • pregnancy and breastfeeding
  • regular current or previous participation in impact-type exercises and long-distance running more than three times a week

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT00697957

University of Oulu
Oulu, Finland, 90014
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of Oulu
Oulu Deaconess Institute
UKK Institute
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health
The Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation (TEKES)
Newtest Ltd
CCC Group Ltd.
Fastrax Ltd.

Publications automatically indexed to this study by Identifier (NCT Number):
Responsible Party: Timo Jämsä, professor, University of Oulu Identifier: NCT00697957     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 40093/02
First Posted: June 16, 2008    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: June 16, 2008
Last Verified: June 2008

Keywords provided by University of Oulu:
bone density
cardiovascular diseases
fragility fractures
impact intensity
intervention studies

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Bone Diseases, Metabolic
Bone Diseases
Musculoskeletal Diseases
Metabolic Diseases