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Flumazenil Reversal of Oral Triazolam

This study has been completed.
National Institutes of Health (NIH)
Information provided by:
University of Washington Identifier:
First received: June 9, 2008
Last updated: June 11, 2008
Last verified: June 2008
An increase in the utilization of anesthesia and sedation medications by non-anesthesiologists, including dentists, has grown dramatically. This has been prompted, in part, by the need for pharmacological tools to address high levels of fear and anxiety about dental care among the US population and the evidence of oral health disparities among those who are fearful . Given the prevalence of dental fear in the general population and in the various populations with the greatest burden of oral diseases, effective sedation techniques are needed that are safe and effective in the hands of general dentists that make up the "front line" in the efforts to reduce oral health disparities. This study is to determine whether, when compared to a saline placebo, a single intraoral submucosal administration of the benzodiazepine antagonist flumazenil (0.2 mg) is capable of attenuating in 10 minutes or less the central nervous system (CNS) depression produced by a paradigm of stacked sublingual dosing of triazolam (3 doses of 0.25 mg over 90 minutes).

Condition Intervention Phase
Dental Anxiety
Drug: Flumazenil
Drug: Placebo
Phase 1
Phase 2

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Double Blind (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Flumazenil Rescue Strategy

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by University of Washington:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Observer Assessment of Alertness/Sedation [ Time Frame: 360 minutes ]

Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • BIS [ Time Frame: 360 minutes ]

Enrollment: 14
Study Start Date: September 2006
Study Completion Date: December 2007
Primary Completion Date: December 2007 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: 1
Flumazenil 2mL
Drug: Flumazenil
2 mL, 0.2 mg SM
Placebo Comparator: 2
Saline, 2mL SM
Drug: Placebo
2 mL sterile saline SM


Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 40 Years   (Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes

Inclusion Criteria:

  • ASA I

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Use of benzodiazepines, anxiolytics or any other medications that would interact with either triazolam's or flumazenil's metabolism or clinical effect (including herbals) within four weeks of the study
  • Body mass index (BMI) no less than 15 kg/m2 and no greater than 30 kg/m2
  • Pregnancy or not currently using pharmacologic methods of birth control
  • Allergy or sensitivity to benzodiazepines
  • History of a seizure disorder; AND
  • Chronic tobacco use.
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Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT00695630

United States, Washington
Dental Fears Research Clinic
Seattle, Washington, United States, 98195
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of Washington
National Institutes of Health (NIH)
Principal Investigator: Peter M Milgrom, DDS University of Washington
  More Information

Responsible Party: Peter Milgrom/Professor of Dental Public Health Sciences, University of Washington Identifier: NCT00695630     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 30779
U54DE014254 ( US NIH Grant/Contract Award Number )
Study First Received: June 9, 2008
Last Updated: June 11, 2008

Keywords provided by University of Washington:
conscious sedation
dental anxiety/drug therapy
behavior/drug effects

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Protective Agents
Physiological Effects of Drugs
GABA Modulators
GABA Agents
Neurotransmitter Agents
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action processed this record on April 28, 2017