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Trial record 2 of 2511 for:    "Plasma Cell Neoplasm"

Sorafenib, Lenalidomide, and Dexamethasone in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Multiple Myeloma

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT00687674
Recruitment Status : Terminated (Due to study design (and toxicity), this trial closed to accrual prior to opening the phase II portion.)
First Posted : June 2, 2008
Results First Posted : December 26, 2011
Last Update Posted : June 12, 2018
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Mayo Clinic

Brief Summary:

RATIONALE: Sorafenib may stop the growth of cancer cells by blocking some of the enzymes needed for cell growth. Lenalidomide may stimulate the immune system in different ways and stop cancer cells from growing. Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as dexamethasone, work in different ways to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. Sorafenib and lenalidomide may also stop the growth of cancer cells by blocking blood flow to the cancer. Giving sorafenib together with lenalidomide and dexamethasone may kill more cancer cells.

PURPOSE: This phase I/II trial is studying the side effects and best dose of sorafenib when given together with lenalidomide and dexamethasone and to see how well they work in treating patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm Drug: dexamethasone Drug: sorafenib tosylate Drug: Lenalidomide Phase 1 Phase 2

Detailed Description:



  • To determine the maximum tolerated dose of sorafenib tosylate and lenalidomide in combination with dexamethasone in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. (phase I)
  • To describe the toxicity of this regimen in these patients. (phase I)
  • To evaluate the confirmed response in patients treated with this regimen. (phase II)


  • To correlate clinical effects (adverse events and/or tumor response or activity) with pharmacologic parameters (pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics) and/or biologic results (correlative laboratory). (phase II)
  • To assess overall survival and time to disease progression in patients treated with this regimen. (phase II)

OUTLINE: This is a phase I, dose-escalation study of sorafenib tosylate in combination with lenalidomide followed by a phase II study.

Patients receive oral sorafenib tosylate once to twice daily on days 1-28, oral lenalidomide once daily on days 1-21, and oral dexamethasone on days 1, 8, 15, and 22. Treatment repeats every 28 days in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.

Patients undergo blood and bone marrow sample collection periodically during study for laboratory correlative studies. Bone marrow plasma samples (i.e., fresh marrow aspirates) are assessed for marrow angiogenesis (microvessel density) by IHC; angiogenic capability (tubular network formation) by in vitro angiogenesis assay; tumor cell proliferation by bromo-2-deoxyuridine uptake; tumor cell apoptosis by three-color flow cytometry (CD38, CD45 or CD138, and 7AAD); and expression of VEGF and soluble VEGF receptors on plasma cells by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Bone marrow biopsies are assessed for various phosphoproteins by IHC; phosphorylation status of ERK1/2 by immunoblotting; and for pharmacodynamic markers (e.g., P70 S6K) by immunoblotting. Blood samples are assessed for surface markers of circulating endothelial cells (CD105, CD34, and CD146) by flow cytometry and for circulating endothelial cell progenitors by late colony formation in mononuclear cells. The endothelial lineage is confirmed by phenotyping of surface markers for endothelial cells.

After completion of study therapy, patients are followed periodically for up to 3 years.

PROJECTED ACCRUAL: A total of 39 patients will be accrued for phase I and 44 for phase II of this study.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 13 participants
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Phase I/II Study of Sorafenib, Lenalidomide, and Dexamethasone in Relapsed/Refractory Multiple Myeloma
Study Start Date : August 2008
Actual Primary Completion Date : November 2011
Actual Study Completion Date : November 2011

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Sorafenib + Lenalidomide + Dexamethasone Drug: dexamethasone
20 mg orally Days 1, 8, 15, 22 of 28 day cycle

Drug: sorafenib tosylate
Phase I - dose escalating: 200mg once daily dose level -2, 200mg once daily dose level -1, 200mg once daily dose level 0, 200mg twice daily dose level 1, 200mg twice daily dose level 2, 400mg AM & 200mg PM daily dose level 2a, 400mg twice daily dose level 3 orally days 1-28 every 28 days until progression

Drug: Lenalidomide
Phase I - dose escalating: 5mg level -2, 10mg level -1, 15mg level 0, 15mg level 1, 25mg level 2, 25mg level 2a, 25mg level 3 orally days 1-21 every 28 days until progression

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Number of Participants With a Grade 3 and 4 Adverse Event (Phase I) [ Time Frame: up to 3 years ]

    Adverse events were graded according to the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (NCI CTCAE) version 3.

    Description of Grades:

    Grade 1: Mild Grade 2: Moderate Grade 3: Severe Grade 4: Life-threatening Grade 5: Death

  2. Number of Participants Who Achieve a Confirmed Response (Partial Response [PR], Very Good PR [VGPR], Complete Response [CR], or Stringent CR [sCR]) (Phase II) [ Time Frame: Duration on Treatment (up to 3 years) ]

    Response that was confirmed on 2 consecutive evaluations during treatment

    • CR: Complete disappearance of M-protein from serum & urine on immunofixation, <5% plasma cells in bone marrow (BM)
    • sCR: CR plus normal FLC ratio & absence of clonal cells in BM
    • VGPR: >=90% reduction in serum M-component; Urine M-Component <100 mg per 24 hours; <=5% plasma cells in BM
    • PR: >= 50% reduction in serum M-Component and/or Urine M-Component >= 90% reduction or <200 mg per 24 hours; or >= 50% decrease in difference between involved and uninvolved FLC levels

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Overall Survival (Phase II) [ Time Frame: From registration to death (up to 3 years) ]
    Overall Survival (OS) was defined as the time from registration to death of any cause. Participants were followed for a maximum of 2 years from registration. The median OS with 95%CI was estimated using the Kaplan Meier method

  2. Time to Disease Progression (Phase II) [ Time Frame: From registration to progression (up to 3 years) ]

    Time to disease progression (TTP) was defined as the time from registration to progression. The median TTP with 95%CI was estimated using the Kaplan Meier method.

    Progression was defined as any one or more of the following:

    An increase of 25% from lowest confirmed response in:

    • Serum M-component (absolute increase >= 0.5g/dl)
    • Urine M-component (absolute increase >= 200mg/24hour
    • Difference between involved and uninvolved Free Light Chain levels (absolute increase >= 10mg/dl
    • Bone marrow plasma cell percentage (absolute increase of >=10%)

  3. Changes in Microvessel Density From Baseline to Post-treatment and Correlation With > Clinical Outcomes (Phase II) [ Time Frame: Pre and Post treatment (up to 3 years) ]
  4. Change in Apoptosis Rate From Baseline to Post-treatment and Correlation With > Clinical Outcomes (Phase II) [ Time Frame: Pre and Post treatment (up to 3 years) ]
  5. Plasma Cell Gene Expression Profiles and Correlation With > Clinical Outcomes [ Time Frame: Post treatment ]
  6. Percentage of Stained Circulating Endothelial Cells and Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Correlation With Clinical Outcomes (Phase II [ Time Frame: Post treatment ]
  7. Change in VEGF Expression Levels and Correlation With Clinical Outcomes (Phase II) [ Time Frame: Post treatment ]

Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 120 Years   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No


  • Diagnosis of multiple myeloma

    • Relapsed or refractory disease requiring treatment
  • Measurable disease, as defined by at least 1 of the following:

    • Serum monoclonal protein ≥ 1.0 g
    • More than 200 mg of monoclonal protein in the urine on 24-hour electrophoresis
    • Serum immunoglobulin free light chain ≥ 10 mg/dL AND abnormal serum immunoglobulin kappa to lambda free light chain ratio
    • Monoclonal bone marrow plasmacytosis ≥ 30% (i.e., evaluable disease)
  • No known standard therapy that is potentially curative for the patient's disease


  • ECOG performance status 0-2
  • Life expectancy ≥ 12 weeks
  • ANC ≥ 1,000/μL
  • Platelet count ≥ 75,000/μL
  • Hemoglobin ≥ 9 g/dL
  • Direct bilirubin ≤ 1.5 times upper limit of normal (ULN)
  • AST ≤ 3 times ULN (≤ 5 times ULN if the liver is involved)
  • Creatinine ≤ 2.5 times ULN
  • Patients with treated or untreated POEMS (Patient-Oriented Evidence That Matters) allowed, provided they satisfy the criteria for measurable disease
  • No other prior malignancy within the past year except currently treated basal cell or squamous cell skin cancer, carcinoma in situ of the cervix or breast, or prostate cancer not requiring therapy
  • No other active malignancy requiring treatment that would interfere with the assessments of response of the myeloma to protocol treatment
  • INR < 1.5 OR PT/PTT ≤ 1.5 times ULN

    • Patients receiving anticoagulation treatment with an agent such as warfarin or heparin are allowed
  • Not pregnant or nursing
  • Negative pregnancy test
  • Fertile patients must use 2 methods of effective contraception for 28 days prior, during, and for 28 days after discontinuation of lenalidomide
  • Willing to provide research samples according to the test schedule
  • No uncontrolled infection
  • No NYHA classification III or IV heart disease
  • No unstable angina (i.e., anginal symptoms at rest), new-onset angina (i.e., began within the past 3 months), or myocardial infarction within the past 6 months
  • No uncontrolled hypertension, defined as systolic blood pressure > 150 mm Hg or diastolic pressure > 90 mm Hg, despite optimal medical management
  • No thrombotic or embolic events within the past 6 months, including cerebrovascular accidents and transient ischemic attacks
  • More than 4 weeks since prior pulmonary hemorrhage or other bleeding event > grade 2
  • No serious nonhealing wound or ulcer
  • More than 4 weeks since prior significant traumatic injury
  • No known positivity for HIV infection or infectious hepatitis, type A, B, or C
  • No known hypersensitivity to thalidomide or lenalidomide
  • No prior development of erythema nodosum if characterized by a desquamating rash while taking thalidomide or similar drugs
  • Able to take aspirin (325 mg) daily as prophylactic anticoagulation


  • Recovered from prior chemotherapy, regardless of interval since last treatment
  • Prior lenalidomide therapy allowed
  • More than 4 weeks since prior experimental therapy
  • More than 4 weeks since prior major surgery or open biopsy
  • No concurrent enrollment in any other study involving a pharmacologic agent or investigative therapy (i.e., drug, biologic, immunotherapy approaches, gene therapy) whether for symptom control or therapeutic intent
  • No other concurrent chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiotherapy, or any ancillary therapy considered investigational
  • No concurrent cytochrome P450 enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs (i.e., phenytoin, carbamazepine, and phenobarbital), rifampin, or Hypericum perforatum (St. John wort)

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT00687674

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United States, Minnesota
Mayo Clinic
Rochester, Minnesota, United States, 55905
Sponsors and Collaborators
Mayo Clinic
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
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Study Chair: Shaji K. Kumar, M.D. Mayo Clinic

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Responsible Party: Mayo Clinic Identifier: NCT00687674     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: CDR0000597065
P30CA015083 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
MC078A ( Other Identifier: Mayo Clinic )
07-006234 ( Other Identifier: Mayo Clinic IRB )
NCI-2009-01284 ( Registry Identifier: NCI-CTRP )
RV-MM-PI-0142 ( Other Identifier: Celgene Protocol )
SR06-933 ( Other Identifier: Bayer Protocol )
First Posted: June 2, 2008    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: December 26, 2011
Last Update Posted: June 12, 2018
Last Verified: May 2018

Keywords provided by Mayo Clinic:
refractory multiple myeloma

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Multiple Myeloma
Neoplasms, Plasma Cell
Neoplasms by Histologic Type
Hemostatic Disorders
Vascular Diseases
Cardiovascular Diseases
Blood Protein Disorders
Hematologic Diseases
Hemorrhagic Disorders
Lymphoproliferative Disorders
Immunoproliferative Disorders
Immune System Diseases
Dexamethasone acetate
BB 1101
Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Autonomic Agents
Peripheral Nervous System Agents
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Gastrointestinal Agents
Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists
Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal