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Personalized Exercise for Adolescents With Diabetes

This study has been completed.
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Melissa Faulkner, Emory University Identifier:
First received: May 20, 2008
Last updated: May 19, 2014
Last verified: May 2014
This study aims to determine the likely benefits of a study that would use the novel techniques both of writing an exercise "prescription" and of including the family and/or community in sticking to the exercise prescription by youths with diabetes, who often suffer eventual cardiovascular complications that might be lessened by the exercise.

Condition Intervention Phase
Behavioral: PEP intervention
Phase 1

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Non-Randomized
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Personalized Exercise for Adolescents With Diabetes

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by University of Arizona:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • exercise adherence [ Time Frame: Longitudinal and following the 16-week intervention ]

Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • cardiorespiratory fitness [ Time Frame: Following the 16-week intervention ]

Enrollment: 39
Study Start Date: August 2007
Study Completion Date: July 2010
Primary Completion Date: July 2010 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Exercise prescription
Each adolescents with type 1 or type 2 diabetes received individual fitness testing and a personalized exercise program prescription developed by an exercise physiologist. Pretest and posttest measures of glucose control and cardiorespiratory fitness, heart rate variability, metabolic control, lipid profile, body composition, and inflammatory markers, as well as psychological outcomes (i.e., diabetes quality of life) were completed.
Behavioral: PEP intervention
This study will explore the feasibility of adherence to a personalized exercise prescription (PEP) in adolescents with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. The PEP intervention consists of a 2-hour group education session and a 16-week personalized exercise plan implemented in the home or community setting with the use of parental support and care ambassadors. Care ambassadors will maintain consistency of interactions with specific families for the duration of the PEP intervention. This consistency will aid in establishing rapport with the adolescents and parents to answer any questions and provide guidance for adhering to the PEP plan. The PEP intervention will be mutually planned with each teen and parent based upon the assessment of the teen's personal and cultural choices, including family and community resources. Exercise frequency, duration, and intensity for the teen with diabetes will be documented with a MTI ActiGraph accelerometer (Fort Walton Beach, FL).

Detailed Description:
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is now the sixth leading cause of death in the U.S., primarily due to cardiovascular (CV) complications. People with DM have a 2 to 4 times increased risk for heart disease. An increasing number of adolescents are diagnosed with DM, predisposing them to CV morbidity and mortality in early adulthood. Using a comparison group pretest-posttest design, the Primary Aim of this investigation is to determine the feasibility of conducting a novel personalized exercise prescription (PEP) intervention with 20 adolescents who have type 1 DM and 20 adolescents with type 2 DM. We will explore the influence of DM-specific family social support, exercise self-efficacy, and benefits and barriers to exercise on adherence to PEP. The Secondary Aim is to explore possible changes in physiological (i.e., cardiorespiratory fitness, heart rate variability, metabolic control, and lipid profile) and psychological outcomes (i.e., diabetes quality of life [QOL]) of the PEP intervention in adolescents with type 1 or type 2 DM. Long-term benefits of exercise for persons with DM include decreased risk factors for CV disease, improved well-being, and increased life expectancy. The current decline in physical activity during adolescence is problematic, particularly for those with DM, who have an added risk for future CV disease. The limited research available on the efficacy of exercise interventions with youths who have type 1 DM indicates improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness, lipid profile, and glucose regulation. No published exercise intervention research with adolescents who have type 2 DM is available. However, exercise interventions with overweight youth have shown increased heart rate variability and cardiorespiratory fitness. Although numerous studies have examined various school-based strategies to promote more physically active lives in youth populations, no studies have examined the feasibility of conducting individualized, culturally focused exercise prescriptions for adolescents with type 1 or type 2 DM that incorporate family support in a home or community setting. Nor have studies addressed the possible psychosocial and physiological outcomes of these personalized approaches. This investigation will extend the principal investigator's program of research that identified differences in CV risks for adolescents with type 1 vs. type 2 DM. Determining factors that influence the conduct and outcomes of individualized exercise interventions for adolescents with DM can potentially lead to the development of programs that promote adherence to exercise, avert complications, and improve QOL and overall health.

Ages Eligible for Study:   12 Years to 19 Years   (Child, Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Adolescents aged 12 to 19
  • With a diagnosis of type 1 or type 2 DM
  • Score on Physical Activity Recall (PAR) Scale of 36 metabolic equivalents (METs) or less to ensure enrollment of youths who are not already engaged in a regular exercise or sports program
  • Have a parent (guardian) who also agrees to attend personalized exercise program (PEP) training, participate in exercising and provide ongoing encouragement and support for PEP, and who does not have any positive responses to the Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PAR-Q). The decision to use a value for METs < 36 is based upon current PAR data from the PI's R01 that revealed a mean score of 34.7 ± 3.1 for teens with type 1 DM and 33.5 ± 1.4 for teens with type 2 DM. Mean scores for both groups reflect activity levels that are well below the current recommendation of 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous exercise on most days of the week.

Exclusion criteria:

Subjects will be excluded if they:

  • Are in a school grade that is not appropriate to age within 2 years (this is to control for overt delays in cognition, literacy, and psychological or behavioral functioning)
  • Have developed diabetes as a secondary condition to treatment for another chronic condition (i.e., cancer)
  • Have known cardiac defects
  • Are pregnant females.
  Contacts and Locations
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Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT00686283

United States, Arizona
University Medical Center
Tucson, Arizona, United States, 85721
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of Arizona
  More Information

Publications automatically indexed to this study by Identifier (NCT Number):
Responsible Party: Melissa Faulkner, Associate Dean, Emory University Identifier: NCT00686283     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: RNR009267B
7R21NR009267-02 ( US NIH Grant/Contract Award Number )
Study First Received: May 20, 2008
Last Updated: May 19, 2014

Keywords provided by University of Arizona:

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Diabetes Mellitus
Glucose Metabolism Disorders
Metabolic Diseases
Endocrine System Diseases processed this record on April 21, 2017