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The purpose of this study is to use transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) to determine the incidence, severity, and clinical significance of gas bubbles during argon plasma coagulation (APC).
Condition or disease
Gas embolism is a rare but serious complication of APC. We will use TEE to monitor for gas bubbles during APC. APC will be terminated if gas bubbles are associated with ischemic heart rhythms, wall motion abnormalities, or if large gas bubbles are noted in the left ventricle.
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Ages Eligible for Study:
18 Years and older (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:
patients referred to tertiary care center
Adults (male and female) 18 years of age or older
Clinical indication for bronchoscopy (hemoptysis, airway obstruction, tumor excision, granulation tissue that is impairing endobronchial stent performance)
Ability of the patient or proxy to read, comprehend, and sign informed consent document.
Presence of esophageal disorders that may complicate transesophageal echocardiography (strictures, varices, fistula, prior esophageal surgery)
Presence of coagulopathy or other bleeding diathesis
Inability to tolerate brief periods of apnea
Presence of pulmonary vascular disease
Pregnant women will not be included in this study because the potential fetal hypoxemia is not an acceptable risk.
No exclusions will be made based on gender or race.