Gemcitabine and Sorafenib in Advanced Biliary Tract Cancer (GEMSO)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT00661830
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : April 18, 2008
Results First Posted : November 21, 2013
Last Update Posted : November 21, 2013
Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz
Interdisciplinary Center for Clinical Trials (IZKS)
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
PD Dr Markus Möhler, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz

Brief Summary:

This trial will be conducted to evaluate the efficacy, safety and tolerability of a combination of gemcitabine plus sorafenib in comparison of gemcitabine plus placebo as a first-line palliative therapy in chemo-naive advanced or metastatic CCC. There is strong scientific rationale for exploring the role of sorafenib in combination with gemcitabine in advanced CCC.

Sorafenib is a novel signal transduction inhibitor that prevents tumor cell proliferation and angiogenesis through blockade of the Raf/MEK/ERK pathway at the level of Raf kinase and the receptor tyrosine kinases VEGF-R2, R3 and PDGFR-β.

Mutations in these signaling pathways display by far the most common genetic alterations in CCC and overexpression correlates to poor prognosis. Furthermore, there is no evidence of a consistent or meaningful pharmacokinetic interaction between sorafenib and gemcitabine, suggesting that sorafenib can safely be combined with gemcitabine.

Clinical results of a combination of sorafenib and gemcitabine in a phase I study in pancreatic cancer suggested a therapeutic effect, and the safety and efficacy results together with the knowledge of the molecular pathology of CCC provide a rationale for a randomized, placebo-controlled phase II trial consisting of gemcitabine plus sorafenib in advanced CCC.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Adenocarcinoma Drug: Gemcitabine Drug: Placebo Drug: Sorafenib Phase 2

Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 103 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Double (Participant, Investigator)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Randomized, Double-blind, Multicenter Phase II Trial With Gemcitabine Plus Sorafenib Versus Gemcitabine Plus Placebo in Patients With Chemo-naive Advanced or Metastatic Adenocarcinoma of the Biliary Tract
Study Start Date : May 2008
Actual Primary Completion Date : June 2010
Actual Study Completion Date : June 2010

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: 1
Gemcitabine + Sorafenib
Drug: Gemcitabine
Gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2 body surface i.v. first cycle at day 1, 8, 15, 22, 29, 36, 43. Next cycles at day 1, 8, 15.

Drug: Sorafenib
Sorafenib 400 mg bid orally continuously

Placebo Comparator: 2
Gemcitabine + Placebo
Drug: Gemcitabine
Gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2 body surface i.v. first cycle at day 1, 8, 15, 22, 29, 36, 43. Next cycles at day 1, 8, 15.

Drug: Placebo

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Progression-free Survival (PFS) [ Time Frame: one year ]
    The primary endpoint is the progression-free survival (PFS) defined as the time from start of treatment to first documentation of objective tumor progression or to death due to any cause, whichever occurs first during treatment or follow-up period. For patients not known to have died as of the data cut-off date and who do not have objective progressive disease, PFS will be censored at the date of the last objective progression-free disease assessment. For patients who receive subsequent anticancer therapy (after discontinuation from the study drug) prior to objectively determined disease progression or death, PFS will be censored at the date of the last objective progression-free disease assessment prior to post-discontinuation anti-cancer therapy. Acceptable documentation of objective disease progression status consists of objective assessments using CT scan assessment method.

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Overall Survival [ Time Frame: one year ]
    Overall Survival (OS) is measured from start of treatment to death due to any cause until end of follow-up period. Time to last observation will be used if a patient has not died and OS for the patient will be considered censored at the date of the last observation.

  2. Best Overall Response [ Time Frame: one year ]

    Best Overall Response (BOR) is defined as the best tumor response (confirmed partial or complete response, stable disease) that is achieved during treatment or within 30 days after termination of active therapy that is confirmed according to the RECIST tumor response criteria. Best response is determined from the sequence of responses assessed. For complete response (CR) or partial response (PR), best response must be confirmed by a second assessment within 4 -6 weeks.

    Two objective status determinations of CR before progression are required for a best response of CR.

    Two determinations of PR or better before progression, but not qualifying for a CR, are required for a best response of PR.

    Best response of Stable Disease (SD) is defined as disease that does not meet the criteria of CR, PR or Progressive Disease (PD) and has been evaluated at least one time, at least 6 weeks after baseline assessment.

  3. Time to Objective Response [ Time Frame: one year ]
    Time to Objective Response (OR) is defined as the time from start of treatment to objective tumor response (CR or PR) is first documented according to the RECIST tumor response criteria during treatment or until 30 days after termination of active therapy. Response must subsequently be confirmed. For subjects failing to achieve an objective response and who did not progress during the trial, time to objective response will be censored at their last date of tumor evaluation.

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Male and female patients aged 18 years and older
  • Signed and dated informed consent before the start of specific protocol procedures
  • Adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder or intrahepatic bile ducts or histologically proven hepatic metastases of an earlier resected and histologically proven biliary tract cancer

    • Not amenable to curative surgical resection
    • With at least one unidimensionally measurable target lesion in non-irradiated (or treated by photodynamic therapy, PDT) area (largest diameter ≥ 1 cm (spiral CT scan or MRI) or ≥ 2 cm (conventional CT scan)
    • With pain and biliary obstruction controlled
    • Cytologically or histologically confirmed
  • Note : in case of uncertain biliary tract origin (e.g., intrahepatic CCCs), inclusion is possible if

    • extensive search for primary tumor (thoracic and abdomino pelvic CT scan, colonoscopy, upper digestive endoscopy, serum PSA level for men or mammography for women, and FDG-PET if possible) is negative
    • histological examination is consistent with bile duct adenocarcinoma, with IHC positive for cytokeratin 7 and 19 and negative for cytokeratin 20 [Shimonishi, 2000].
    • No histological evidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)
    • No prior palliative (radio)-chemotherapy (gemcitabine or fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy)
  • Note:

    • previous adjuvant chemotherapy is allowed (completed since ≥ 6 months if containing gemcitabine or platinum salts);
    • previous irradiation (external radiotherapy, brachytherapy, chemoembolization) and PDT are allowed, provided that there is at least one unidimensionally measurable target lesion in untreated area
  • Resolution of all side effects of prior surgical procedures to grade ≤ 1 (except for the laboratory values specified below)
  • At least 4 weeks from any major surgery (at first dose of study drug)
  • ECOG Performance Status of 0-2

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Surgery (except diagnostic biopsy), external radiotherapy, brachytherapy, or PDT within 30 days prior to start of treatment.
  • Other tumor type than adenocarcinoma (e.g. leiomyosarcoma, lymphoma) or a second cancer except in patients with squamous or basal cell carcinoma of the skin or carcinoma in situ of the cervix which has been effectively treated. Patients curatively treated and disease free for at least 5 years will be discussed with the sponsor before inclusion
  • History of cardiac disease: congestive heart failure > NYHA class 2; active CAD (MI more than 6 months prior to study entry is allowed); cardiac arrhythmias requiring anti-arrhythmic therapy (beta blockers or digoxin are permitted) or uncontrolled hypertension
  • Any of the following within the 12 months prior to starting the study treatment,: coronary/peripheral artery bypass graft, cerebrovascular accident or transient ischemic attack, or pulmonary embolism
  • Ongoing cardiac dysrhythmias of grade ≥ 2, atrial fibrillation of any grade, or QTc interval > 450 msec for males or > 470 msec for females
  • Hypertension that cannot be controlled by medications ( > 150/100 mmHg despite optimal medical therapy)
  • History of HIV infection
  • Active clinically serious infections ( > grade 2 NCI-CTC version 3.0)
  • Known Central Nervous System tumors including metastatic brain disease
  • Patients with seizure disorder requiring medication (such as steroids or anti-epileptics)
  • History of organ allograft
  • Patients with evidence or history of bleeding diathesis
  • Active disseminated intravascular coagulation, or patients prone to thromboembolism
  • Patients undergoing renal dialysis
  • Pregnant or breast-feeding patients

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT00661830

Klinikum der Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, I. Med. Klinik
Mainz, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany, 55131
Universitätsklinikum Jena, Klinik für Innere Medizin, Innere Medizin II
D-07740 Jena, Germany
Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, I. Med. Klinik, Zentrum für Innere Medizin, Martinistr. 3
D-20248 Hamburg, Germany
Klinikum Fulda gAG, Tumorklinik, Pacelliallee 4
D-36043 Fulda, Germany
Klinikum der Johann-Wolfgang Goethe-Universität, Innere Medizin I, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7
D-60590 Frankfurt, Germany
Universitätsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik für Innere Medizin II, Kirrberger Str., Gebäude 41
D-66421 Homburg/Saar, Germany
Klinikum der Universität München, Medizinische Klinik II, Marchioninistr. 15
D-81377 München, Germany
Klinikum rechts der Isar, TU München, II. Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik, Ismaningerstr. 22
D-81675 München, Germany
II. Med. Klinik, Leopoldina-Krankenhaus der Stadt Schweinfurt, Gustav-Adolf-Str. 8
D-97422 Schweinfurt, Germany
Klinikum Esslingen
Esslingen, Germany, 73730
Universitätsklinikum Halle, Innere Medizin I
Halle, Germany, 06120
Sponsors and Collaborators
PD Dr Markus Möhler
Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz
Interdisciplinary Center for Clinical Trials (IZKS)
Principal Investigator: Markus Moehler, MD Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, I. Med. Klinik

Responsible Party: PD Dr Markus Möhler, MD, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz Identifier: NCT00661830     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: CC-GEMSO-2007
First Posted: April 18, 2008    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: November 21, 2013
Last Update Posted: November 21, 2013
Last Verified: September 2013

Keywords provided by PD Dr Markus Möhler, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz:

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial
Neoplasms by Histologic Type
Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Antineoplastic Agents
Antiviral Agents
Anti-Infective Agents
Enzyme Inhibitors
Immunosuppressive Agents
Immunologic Factors
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Protein Kinase Inhibitors
Vitamin B Complex
Growth Substances